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Urban areas generate 80 per cent of global GDP (CBD, 1992; Ammann, 2016; Gressel, 2007) and no country has developed without urbanisation, according to Paul Collier (Dobbs et al., 2012; Collier, 2015). Just 2 per cent of the world’s population was urbanised in 1800; the figure passed 50 per cent by 2008, and on current trends it will reach 60 per cent by 2030. Virtually all this urban future growth will take place in developing countries, emulating Western Europe and North America, so that by 2025 it is estimated that 235 million households earning more than US$20,000 pa ppp will live in cities in the emerging economies, compared to 210 million in cities in the developed regions (Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2013). Cities are able to harness economies of scale and specialisation through the economies of agglomeration, but they consume 75 per cent of the world’s energy and are responsible for up to 70 per cent of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) (Satterthwaite, 2008).
Coming up to the end of the peace process in 2016, Colombia has experienced a general improvement in homicide rates and security in the last decade, yet targeted attacks against social leaders continue. For example, indigenous leaders, union leaders, mining and peasant leaders, and others have been attacked despite an earlier paramilitary demobilization effort and the recent peace processes. After four years of peace talks, with a full range of suspensions, re-starts, and flare-ups of conflict, the FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia) and the government of Colombia agreed to formally end their decades-long conflict. After an animated campaign against the peace deal, led by former president Álvaro Uribe, Colombian voters narrowly rejected it (50.2 percent) on October 2, 2016. Despite the failure of the referendum, the Colombian Congress unanimously passed a revised accord in late November 2016, and the country officially entered into a post-conflict stage.
Smooth solutions of the incompressible Euler equations are characterized by the property that circulation around material loops is conserved. This is the Kelvin theorem. Likewise, smooth solutions of Navier–Stokes are characterized by a generalized Kelvin's theorem, introduced by Constantin–Iyer (2008). In this note, we introduce a class of stochastic fluid equations, whose smooth solutions are characterized by natural extensions of the Kelvin theorems of their deterministic counterparts, which hold along certain noisy flows. These equations are called the stochastic Euler–Poincaré and stochastic Navier–Stokes–Poincaré equations respectively. The stochastic Euler–Poincaré equations were previously derived from a stochastic variational principle by Holm (2015), which we briefly review. Solutions of these equations do not obey pathwise energy conservation/dissipation in general. In contrast, we also discuss a class of stochastic fluid models, solutions of which possess energy theorems but do not, in general, preserve circulation theorems.
Mood disturbance is frequent after traumatic brain injury (TBI), often assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Research supports a three-factor HADS structure (anxiety, depression, and psychomotor), although this has not been used to investigate demographic variables and mood outcome post-TBI. This study examined severity of TBI, demographic variables [age, gender, estimated premorbid IQ (EIQ), relationship status, employment status, socio-economic status (SES)], and mood outcome, using HADS factor scores from a large adult population sample in Tasmania.
HADS factor scores were calculated for an initial sample of 596 adults. The sample sizes varied according to those attending at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months post-TBI and the available data for each dependent variable.
Significantly higher anxiety, depression, and psychomotor scores were reported at most follow-ups by females, the middle-aged, and those with lower IQs. Longer post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) was associated with significantly greater mood problems. Occasional significant findings at earlier follow-ups for the factors were noted for those unemployed. Other variables were rarely significant. PTA, premorbid IQ, and Age were included in most Multiple Regression equations predicting outcome for the factors, with Gender included for Anxiety and depression at 6 months after injury.
Key demographic variables and PTA severity relate to mood post-TBI, and contribute to predicting mood outcome. Differences in findings for the three factors support their use in clinical practice.
If you want to know what society looks like, look at our cities, look at their distribution of spaces, their scales, their densities. Look at how cities curate events. This article sketches the basis for architectural thinking on individual/collective social formations as read through the texts of Vitruvius and Freud with support from Aristotle, Arendt, and Lacan, in parallel with city projects by the rooms+cities studio, a Master’s-level design research unit at the University of Dundee, which is itself a collective project that begins with the close reading of canonic city plans in search of the collective body of knowledge that comprises the discipline and practice of architecture. Teaching may not be the only way to change built environment thinking but it is one way. Vittorio Gregotti reckoned that the schools were best placed to challenge establishment practices with avantgarde thought. We use architecture to think the relation between the individual and the collective, and thereby to make a space for politics and public life. This article is thus comprised of two arguments, one predominantly textual, the other graphic, of complementary weight and importance, that run side by side and occasionally cross or mingle.
Over the moduli space of smooth curves, the double ramification cycle can be defined by pulling back the unit section of the universal jacobian along the Abel–Jacobi map. This breaks down over the boundary since the Abel–Jacobi map fails to extend. We construct a ‘universal’ resolution of the Abel–Jacobi map, and thereby extend the double ramification cycle to the whole of the moduli of stable curves. In the non-twisted case, we show that our extension coincides with the cycle constructed by Li, Graber, Vakil via a virtual fundamental class on a space of rubber maps.
The mental health challenges encountered by paramedics have received much attention in recent years. This attention has particularly focused on high rates of stress, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This heightened awareness of the high incidence of mental illness, which has at times tragically resulted in the suicide of serving and former paramedics, is stimulating the address of mental health within the paramedic profession. It is now time to call on paramedic educators to prepare student paramedics for the mental health challenges associated with a career in the emergency medical services.
To explore the preparedness of student paramedics for the mental health challenges of the paramedic profession and identify the coping strategies used by veteran paramedics to successfully meet these challenges.
Twenty semi-structured interviews with veteran paramedics from Australia and New Zealand were conducted.
Advice from veteran paramedics was comprised of three key themes: support, health, and the profession.
The findings of the study indicate that the preparation of student paramedics for the mental health challenges of the paramedic profession throughout the undergraduate curriculum could be advantageous. The advice offered by veteran paramedics can be included within undergraduate paramedic curricula and delivered by sharing the personal experiences of the veteran paramedics. These experiences are highly credible and sharing them offers an opportunity for veterans to contribute positively to the future of paramedicine. Guidelines for their inclusion in the undergraduate paramedic curriculum should be prepared to facilitate knowledge translation and to encourage the development of conscious coping strategies by student paramedics during their learning phase. Further research is needed to raise awareness in this area, with a specific focus on preparing paramedic students to cope with mental health challenges related to undergraduate degree programs, and how they feel about commencing their career as a paramedic.
Introduction: Simulation has assumed an integral role in the Canadian healthcare system with applications in quality improvement, systems development, and medical education. High quality simulation-based research (SBR) is required to ensure the effective and efficient use of this tool. This study sought to establish national SBR priorities and describe the barriers and facilitators of SBR in Emergency Medicine (EM) in Canada. Methods: Simulation leads (SLs) from all fourteen Canadian Departments or Divisions of EM associated with an adult FRCP-EM training program were invited to participate in three surveys and a final consensus meeting. The first survey documented active EM SBR projects. Rounds two and three established and ranked priorities for SBR and identified the perceived barriers and facilitators to SBR at each site. Surveys were completed by SLs at each participating institution, and priority research themes were reviewed by senior faculty for broad input and review. Results: Twenty SLs representing all 14 invited institutions participated in all three rounds of the study. 60 active SBR projects were identified, an average of 4.3 per institution (range 0-17). 49 priorities for SBR in Canada were defined and summarized into seven priority research themes. An additional theme was identified by the senior reviewing faculty. 41 barriers and 34 facilitators of SBR were identified and grouped by theme. Fourteen SLs representing 12 institutions attended the consensus meeting and vetted the final list of eight priority research themes for SBR in Canada: simulation in CBME, simulation for interdisciplinary and inter-professional learning, simulation for summative assessment, simulation for continuing professional development, national curricular development, best practices in simulation-based education, simulation-based education outcomes, and simulation as an investigative methodology. Conclusion: Conclusion: This study has summarized the current SBR activity in EM in Canada, as well as its perceived barriers and facilitators. We also provide a consensus on priority research themes in SBR in EM from the perspective of Canadian simulation leaders. This group of SLs has formed a national simulation-based research group which aims to address these identified priorities with multicenter collaborative studies.
This article will use past issues of the International Review of the Red Cross to examine how the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (the Movement) has engaged with the issue of civilian protection over the course of its history. Although founded to organize humanitarian relief and legal protection for wounded and sick combatants, the International Committee of the Red Cross and the wider Movement have increasingly incorporated civilian war victims into their remit since their establishment. Yet, as this article will highlight, this process has not been straightforward. Focussing on the critical period between the two World Wars, the article will use the Review to illustrate why the Red Cross began engaging with the “civilianization” of conflicts in response to the threat of new technologies like gas and aerial bombardment. Using articles from the Review to highlight the key challenges faced by the Movement in protecting civilians over this period, it will also consider the gaps in the Red Cross's initial conceptions of who “the civilian” was, why belligerents attacked them, and what was the best means of protecting them.
We propose the concept of the “Fish Revolution” to demarcate the dramatic increase in North Atlantic fisheries after AD 1500, which led to a 15-fold increase of cod (Gadus morhua) catch volumes and likely a tripling of fish protein to the European market. We consider three key questions: (1) What were the environmental parameters of the Fish Revolution? (2) What were the globalising effects of the Fish Revolution? (3) What were the consequences of the Fish Revolution for fishing communities? While these questions would have been considered unknowable a decade or two ago, methodological developments in marine environmental history and historical ecology have moved information about both supply and demand into the realm of the discernible. Although much research remains to be done, we conclude that this was a major event in the history of resource extraction from the sea, mediated by forces of climate change and globalisation, and is likely to provide a fruitful agenda for future multidisciplinary research.
The early Middle Ages saw a major expansion of cereal cultivation across large parts of Europe thanks to the spread of open-field farming. A major project to trace this expansion in England by deploying a range of scientific methods is generating direct evidence for this so-called ‘Medieval Agricultural Revolution’.
The Nordic countries have comprehensive, population-based health and medical registries linkable on individually unique personal identity codes, enabling complete long-term follow-up. The aims of this study were to describe the NorTwinCan cohort established in 2010 and assess whether the cancer mortality and incidence rates among Nordic twins are similar to those in the general population. We analyzed approximately 260,000 same-sexed twins in the nationwide twin registers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Cancer incidence was determined using follow-up through the national cancer registries. We estimated standardized incidence (SIR) and mortality (SMR) ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) across country, age, period, follow-up time, sex and zygosity. More than 30,000 malignant neoplasms have occurred among the twins through 2010. Mortality rates among twins were slightly lower than in the general population (SMR 0.96; CI 95% [0.95, 0.97]), but this depends on information about zygosity. Twins have slightly lower cancer incidence rates than the general population, with SIRs of 0.97 (95% CI [0.96, 0.99]) in men and 0.96 (95% CI [0.94, 0.97]) in women. Testicular cancer occurs more often among male twins than singletons (SIR 1.15; 95% CI [1.02, 1.30]), while cancers of the kidney (SIR 0.82; 95% CI [0.76, 0.89]), lung (SIR 0.89; 95% CI [0.85, 0.92]) and colon (SIR 0.90; 95% CI [0.87, 0.94]) occur less often in twins than in the background population. Our findings indicate that the risk of cancer among twins is so similar to the general population that cancer risk factors and estimates of heritability derived from the Nordic twin registers are generalizable to the background populations.