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Rice is widely grown in rainfed lowlands during the wet season in the Mekong region. Limited nutrient availability is a common constraint on crop yield, and the optimal rate of fertilizer application depends on the soil type. The objective of our study was to evaluate rice productivity and the economic feasibility of various nutrient management regimes in Cambodia. We conducted field experiments on three soil types (Prey Khmer, Prateah Lang, and Toul Samroung, equivalent to Psamments, Plinthustalfs, and Endoaqualfs, respectively) in four provinces (Battambang, Kampong Thom, Pursat, and Siem Reap) during the 2016 and 2017 wet seasons to compare nine (2016) and seven (2017) N–P–K combinations. Grain yield ranged from 0.9 to 4.8 t ha−1 in 2016 and from 1.0 to 5.2 t ha−1 in 2017, depending on soil type and nutrient management. The Prey Khmer soil contained around 80% sand, and rice yield responded most weakly to nutrient management. The moderate fertilizer input in the current soil-specific recommendation was effective on this soil type. However, on more fertile soils with a higher clay content and a higher cation-exchange capacity (Toul Samroung and Prateah Lang), an additional 20 kg N ha−1 combined with adding 15 kg ha−1 of P2O5 or 20 kg ha−1 of K2O significantly increased yield and economic return. Although P and K use during Cambodia’s wet season is uncommon, our results demonstrate the importance of these nutrients in improving the country’s rice production.
Residents of Hong Kong have undergone a dietary transition from a traditional Chinese diet that is high in seafood to a more Western diet. This may have affected the nutritional composition of breast milk of Hong Kong mothers. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the dietary pattern and the fatty acid profile of the breast milk of lactating women in Hong Kong. Seventy-three volunteering healthy Hong Kong lactating mothers participated in the study. Their dietary intakes were assessed by using a 3-d dietary record and FFQ. The mean n-3 fatty acid levels were approximately 0·4 % (EPA) and 0·9 % (DHA) of total fatty acids in the breast milk of lactating mothers who had exclusively breastfed their infants aged 2–6 months. Maternal dietary intakes of n-3 fatty acids were positively associated with their levels in the breast milk. The levels of maternal intakes of freshwater and saltwater fish, especially the consumption of salmon, croaker and mandarin, were significantly correlated with the content of DHA in breast milk. The present study is among the very few in the literature to determine the fatty acid profile of breast milk in Hong Kong populations and verify certain dietary factors that influence this profile. High levels of n-3 PUFA, especially DHA, were observed in the breast milk of Hong Kong lactating women. The findings may serve as a dietary reference for lactating mothers to optimise the fatty acid profile of their breast milk.
We present a side-by-side comparison of the stability of three different types of benchmark solution-processed organic solar cells (OSCs), subject to thermal cycling stress conditions. We study the in situ performance during 5 complete thermal cycles between −100 and 80 °C and find that all the device types investigated exhibit superior stability, albeit with a distinct temperature dependence of device efficiency. After applying a much harsher condition of 50 thermal cycles, we further affirm the robustness of the OSC against thermal cycling stress. Our results suggest that OSCs could be a promising candidate for applications with large variations and rapid change in the operating temperature such as outer space applications. Also, a substantial difference in the efficiency drops from high to low temperature for different systems is observed. It suggests that maintaining optimum performance with minimal variations with operating temperature is a key challenge to be addressed for such photovoltaic applications.
The prospect of autonomous weapons systems (AWS) has raised persistent questions of responsibility and accountability, the contours and content of which remain ill defined. This chapter seeks to clarify these questions by differentiating between two distinct, yet converging, categories of responsibility issues. The first category of responsibility issues is created by the autonomy of the weapons systems itself and arises from the circumstances in which they are used (a ‘circumstantial responsibility problem’). The second set of issues is only exposed by AWS because it is conceptual in nature, arising from the relationships between different conceptions of responsibility (a ‘conceptual responsibility problem’). Drawing this basic differentiation is critical because it suggests the existence of two independent problems that both require a solution, whereas only the former has been addressed in the literature to date.
As identified, the core of the problem is that the would-be direct perpetrators, who would ordinarily be individually responsible for unlawful behaviour, will be replaced by autonomous entities that are incapable of bearing direct responsibility for such consequences at the outset. There are two basic avenues to solve this circumstantial responsibility problem: either meaningfully ascribe responsibility to the autonomous entities themselves or impute responsibility to proximate human beings. Neither avenue, however, is entirely satisfactory. On the one hand, assigning responsibility to artificial agents is unsatisfying and seems to entail impunity. On the other hand, imputing responsibility to proximate individuals raises a risk of scapegoating the individuals associated with these operations. These inadequacies suggest that alterations in legal doctrine are necessary to accommodate the prospect of AWS.
I also argue, however that resolving the circumstantial responsibility problem issues surrounding autonomous weapons usage is necessary, but insufficient, because a distinct set of conceptual responsibility issues would still remain. This set of responsibility issues is inherent within the disparate, but interrelated, ideas that together inform the concept of responsibility and that occur where causal forms of responsibility are conflated or substituted with types of role responsibility. Unlike circumstantial responsibility issues, which are created by the autonomy of the weapons system breaking the chain of causality, I suggest that conceptual responsibility issues are merely revealed by the challenges of artificial autonomy and remain unchanged with alterations in practice.
The intense and polemical debate over the legality and morality of weapons systems to which human cognitive functions are delegated (up to and including the capacity to select targets and release weapons without further human intervention) addresses a phenomena which does not yet exist but which is widely claimed to be emergent. This groundbreaking collection combines contributions from roboticists, legal scholars, philosophers and sociologists of science in order to recast the debate in a manner that clarifies key areas and articulates questions for future research. The contributors develop insights with direct policy relevance, including who bears responsibility for autonomous weapons systems, whether they would violate fundamental ethical and legal norms, and how to regulate their development. It is essential reading for those concerned about this emerging phenomenon and its consequences for the future of humanity.
Dr Boss stated that he hoped to publish the first two volumes of the General Catalogue by the middle of the next year and the complete catalogue of four volumes by the end of 1936. A 5th volume containing the introduction will be published later.
Dr Jackson reported that Prof. Kopff would postpone the choice of the 3000 fundamental stars for photography till after the publication of Boss’s G.C.
Dr Gerasimoviç reported that the fundamental stars of magnitudes 7m.5—8m.5 which have been selected by Dneprovski for observation at Pulkovo and Nikolayev were stars of the M giant type.
Since the last meeting of the International Astronomical Union, much attention has been given both in Germany and America to the systematic errors of the fundamental catalogues of Boss and Auwers. This is of special importance if the proper motions of any of the stars are to be used in the verification of the rotation in the plane of the Milky Way. The periodic errors in the proper motions, both in right ascension and declination, are of significance in this connection, while the motion of the equinox is required for the determination of precession, and the systematic correction to the proper motions of declination affects the position of the Solar Apex and the Vertices of the Star Streams.