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Methane (CH4) production is a ubiquitous, apparently unavoidable side effect of fermentative fibre digestion by symbiotic microbiota in mammalian herbivores. Here, a data compilation is presented of in vivo CH4 measurements in individuals of 37 mammalian herbivore species fed forage-only diets, from the literature and from hitherto unpublished measurements. In contrast to previous claims, absolute CH4 emissions scaled linearly to DM intake, and CH4 yields (per DM or gross energy intake) did not vary significantly with body mass. CH4 physiology hence cannot be construed to represent an intrinsic ruminant or herbivore body size limitation. The dataset does not support traditional dichotomies of CH4 emission intensity between ruminants and nonruminants, or between foregut and hindgut fermenters. Several rodent hindgut fermenters and nonruminant foregut fermenters emit CH4 of a magnitude as high as ruminants of similar size, intake level, digesta retention or gut capacity. By contrast, equids, macropods (kangaroos) and rabbits produce few CH4 and have low CH4 : CO2 ratios for their size, intake level, digesta retention or gut capacity, ruling out these factors as explanation for interspecific variation. These findings lead to the conclusion that still unidentified host-specific factors other than digesta retention characteristics, or the presence of rumination or a foregut, influence CH4 production. Measurements of CH4 yield per digested fibre indicate that the amount of CH4 produced during fibre digestion varies not only across but also within species, possibly pointing towards variation in microbiota functionality. Recent findings on the genetic control of microbiome composition, including methanogens, raise the question about the benefits methanogens provide for many (but apparently not to the same extent for all) species, which possibly prevented the evolution of the hosting of low-methanogenic microbiota across mammals.
Southern pine beetles (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) and symbiotic fungi are associated with mass mortality in stands of Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea Morelet). This study provides a 12.7-year assessment of semiochemical mediation between southern pine beetle and Caribbean pine in relation to concentrations of 4-allylanisole (estragole, methyl chavicol) and monoterpenes measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in different seasons in premontane and coastal pine stands of Belize and Guatemala. Individual trees and stands with >2.5% (relative mass %) of 4-allylanisole in the xylem oleoresin exhibited significantly less beetle-induced mortality than those with <2.5%. Changes in relative levels of 4-allylanisole and monoterpenes during this study are consistent with seasonal temperature and cumulative water deficit effects and suggest bark beetle attack of P. caribaea may intensify in the future.
New fieldwork at Ur has begun to investigate urban scale, city organization, and the environment of the city's hinterland. Analysis of new sources of declassified aerial and satellite imagery from the 1950s and 1960s, recent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photos, and a systematic surface collection show that Ur may have expanded to between 120–500 hectares in size during its later periods of habitation, far larger than the sixty hectare maximum size previously estimated. Traces of buried architecture visible in the UAV photos and topographic models generated from UAV photos allow for the generation of hypotheses about the city plan of Ur during the Late Larsa/Old Babylonian and Neo Babylonian periods. Relict watercourses mapped in the vicinity of the main mound indicate how the city might have been supplied with water in some periods. Alongside this site-based work, historical aerial and satellite imagery provide an updated picture of ancient hydrology, environment, and settlement patterns around Ur.
Despite the importance of understanding the narrative abilities of bilingual children, minimal research has focused on Spanish–English bilingual preschoolers. Therefore, this study examined the cross-language macrostructure and within-language microstructure relations in the English and Spanish narratives of bilingual preschoolers and examined whether language dominance impacted these relations. Narratives were elicited from 200 preschool-aged children of Latino heritage. Microstructure measures included the number of different words, the mean length of utterance in words, and the subordination index. The narrative scoring scheme measured macrostructure (Heilmann, Miller, Nockerts, & Dunaway, 2010). Using standardized language testing of expressive vocabulary and sentence comprehension, the children were classified into two groups: balanced dominance and Spanish dominant. Results revealed that English macrostructure and Spanish macrostructure were not related after controlling for microstructure measures within languages. Children’s microstructure abilities in each language were strongly related to their macrostructure abilities within that language. Dominance did not moderate these relations. Consistent with previous research on school-age children, vocabulary was a unique predictor of macrostructure production. This study highlights the additional importance of utterance length within both languages to macrostructure during the preschool years. The absence of unique cross-language macrostructure relations and the absence of dominance group moderation may have been due to the immaturity of the children’s narratives.
In recent years, researchers have observed the increasing emergence of new forms of organization, in which membership is described as becoming fluid or unclear. Against this backdrop, scholars have proposed to drop membership as a defining criterion for formal organizations and instead to apply the broader concept of ‘contributorship’, which states that there are not only members of an organization, but also contributors who belong partially to the organization, as long as they participate in the organizational processes. I add to this development and combine the concept of contributorship with the decision-based perspective on organizations, which sees decisions as the constitutive elements of organization. Thus, contributorship can be understood as a matter of decision: through their decisions, organizations manage the possibilities for individuals to contribute. I build on two qualitative case studies demonstrating that instead of defining specific members, organizations can decide on spatial, temporal, attributional, resource-related, and/or quantitative-limitational premises for distributing possibilities of contributions.
Women suffering from first onset postpartum mental disorders (PPMD) have a highly elevated risk of suicide. The current study aimed to: (1) describe the risk of self-harm among women with PPMD and (2) investigate the extent to which self-harm is associated with later suicide.
We conducted a register-based cohort study linking national Danish registers. This identified women with any recorded first inpatient or outpatient contact to a psychiatric facility within 90 days after giving birth to their first child. The main outcome of interest was defined as the first hospital-registered episode of self-harm. Our cohort consisted of 1 202 292 women representing 24 053 543 person-years at risk.
Among 1554 women with severe first onset PPMD, 64 had a first-ever hospital record of self-harm. Women with PPMD had a hazard ratio (HR) for self-harm of 6.2 (95% CI 4.9–8.0), compared to mothers without mental disorders; but self-harm risk was lower in PPMD women compared to mothers with non-PPMD [HR: 10.1, (95% CI 9.6–10.5)] and childless women with mental disorders [HR: 9.3 (95% CI 8.9–9.7)]. Women with PPMD and records of self-harm had a significantly greater risk for later suicide compared with all other groups of women in the cohort.
Women with PPMD had a high risk of self-harm, although lower than risks observed in other psychiatric patients. However, PPMD women who had self-harmed constituted a vulnerable group at significantly increased risk of later suicide.
As only limited evidence is available for potential benefits of n-3 PUFA supplementation in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), we studied the effects of 4 g n-3 PUFA on endothelial function and inflammatory markers. Seventy patients with stable PAD classified as Rutherford stage 2 or 3 and good control of cardiovascular factors were randomised to receive either 4 g n-3 PUFA or placebo daily for 3 months in a double-blind fashion. Primary endpoint was endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). In addition, ankle–brachial index, maximum and pain-free walking distances were determined. Lipid parameters including the omega-3 index reflecting n-3 PUFA intake as well as pro-inflammatory, endothelial and platelet activation markers were measured over the same time interval. After 3 months of treatment with 4 g n-3 PUFA daily, a significant improvement of FMD was observed compared with placebo (n-3 PUFA, median Δ 3·7 (interquartile range (IQR) –1·8, 7·1) % v. placebo, Δ –0·5 (IQR –6·5, 3·0) %, P = 0·01 between the groups). After a 3-month washout period, this benefit was not sustained (n-3 PUFA, median Δ 0·6 (IQR –2·2, 5·6) % v. placebo, Δ –0·9 (IQR –6·6, 6·7) %, P = 0·20). In response to n-3 PUFA, an improvement of lipid parameters with a pronounced increase in the omega-3 index was seen. No changes were found for other parameters. In conclusion, in patients with PAD, 4 g/d n-3 PUFA improved cardiovascular risk in PAD patients, which needs testing in large-scale trials.
Recently declassified photographs taken by U2 spy planes in the 1950s and 1960s provide an important new source of historical aerial imagery useful for Eurasian archaeology. Like other sources of historical imagery, U2 photos provide a window into the past, before modern agriculture and development destroyed many archaeological sites. U2 imagery is older and in many cases higher resolution than CORONA spy satellite imagery, the other major source of historical imagery for Eurasia, and thus can expand the range of archaeological sites and features that can be studied from an aerial perspective. However, there are significant barriers to finding and retrieving U2 imagery of particular locales, and archaeologists have thus not yet widely used it. In this article, we aim to reduce these barriers by describing the U2 photo dataset and how to access it. We also provide the first spatial index of U2 photos for the Middle East. A brief discussion of archaeological case studies drawn from U2 imagery illustrates its merits and limitations. These case studies include investigations of prehistoric mass-kill hunting traps in eastern Jordan, irrigation systems of the first millennium BC Neo-Assyrian Empire in northern Iraq, and twentieth-century marsh communities in southern Iraq.
More than 90% of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) experience behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), such as agitation. However, little is known regarding the specific burden of agitation for Alzheimer’s patients.
A global systematic literature review was conducted in MEDLINE and Embase for studies of clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of agitation in AD/dementia published from 2006–2016. References of identified papers and related literature reviews were examined. Studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria for burden of agitation/NPS were summarized.
Eighty papers met the inclusion criteria for burden of agitation in dementia. Wide ranges of agitation prevalence were reported, but few papers provided information on incidence. The association of agitation with AD severity was presented in multiple studies; a few suggested positive association of agitation with mortality.
High prevalence of agitation is consistent with earlier reports, but several gaps in understanding of agitation in AD need further exploration.
In 2008, the atmospheric CO2 measurements at the Hegyhátsál rural tower station were extended further by 14CO2 air sampling from two elevations (115 and 10 m a.g.l.), in cooperation with HEKAL (ICER). Since then, a complete six-year-long (2008–2014) dataset of atmospheric CO2, Δ14C, fossil, and modern CO2 excess (relative to Jungfraujoch) has been assembled and evaluated. Based on our results, the annual mean CO2 mole fraction rose at both elevations in this period. The annual mean Δ14CO2 values decreased with a similar average annual decline. Based on our comparison, planetary boundary layer height obtained by modeling has a larger influence on the variation of mole fraction of CO2 (relative to Jungfraujoch), than on its carbon isotopic composition, i.e. the boundary layer rather represents a physical constraint. Fossil fuel CO2 excess at both elevations can rather be observed in wintertime and mainly due to the increased anthropogenic emission of nearby cities in the region. The mean modern CO2 excess at both elevations was even larger in winter, but it drastically decreased at 115 m by summer, while it remained at the winter level at 10 m.
We studied the radiolysis of a wide variety of N-heterocycles, including many of biological importance, and find that the majority are remarkably stable in the solid-state when subjected to large doses of ionizing gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Degradation of N-heterocycles as a function of dose rate and total dose was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Many N-heterocycles show little degradation when γ-irradiated up to a total dose of ~1 MGy, which approximates hundreds of millions of years’ worth of radiation emitted in meteorite parent bodies due to slow radionuclide decay. Extrapolation of these results suggests that these N-heterocyclic compounds would be stable in dry parent bodies over solar system timescales. We suggest that the abundance of these N-heterocycles as measured presently in carbonaceous meteorites is largely reflective of their abundance at the time aqueous alteration stopped in their parent bodies and the absence of certain compounds in present-day samples is either due to the formation mechanisms or degradation which occurred during periods of aqueous alteration or thermal metamorphism.
After deposing his first cousin, the Bavarian duke Tassilo, at the royal palace of Ingelheim in 788, Charlemagne came to Regensburg in Bavaria and secured its borders against the Avars, a semi-nomadic people who lived to the east in what is now Lower Austria and Hungary. He then celebrated Christmas at Aachen. From there later in 789, together with Saxons and Frisians, he launched a campaign across the river Elbe against Slavs known as the Wilzi, from which he returned in victory – so the official Frankish Royal Annals (ARF) relate – to Worms on the Rhine. There he celebrated Christmas 789, which was New Year's Day 790 in the Frankish reckoning, and also the following Easter (11 April) 790. That year he did not undertake a campaign but remained in Worms where, according to the unofficial Revised or so-called Einhard version of the Royal Annals, he received a delegation of Avar leaders (principes) who negotiated with him regarding the boundaries between the two realms (confiniis regnorum suorum). The result was evidently unsatisfactory to Charlemagne, and the Reviser adds ominously in his entry for the year that “this conflict and dispute was the seedbed of the war which afterwards was undertaken against the Avars.” After a short excursion on the river Main to the royal estate at Salz, Charlemagne then returned to Worms for Christmas 790.
Charlemagne again celebrated Easter (27 March) in 791 at Worms and remained there until early summer when he relocated his court back to Regensburg, which lies on the Danube at the most northerly point of the river's course. It was the seat of one of Bavaria's five dioceses north of the Alps and the site of a major monastery, St. Emmeram. The substantial remains of the Roman legionary fortress for Raetia II, still extant today, provided usable fortifications, and the dukes of Bavaria had made it one of their principal residences since the late seventh century. It thus possessed the necessary infrastructure for a royal residence, and its location allowed ready access to the east via the Danube and south into Italy by well-established Roman routes through the Alps. Charlemagne's immediate purpose at Regensburg in 791 was to initiate the campaign against the Avars that he had apparently determined to undertake at Worms in the previous year.
This paper investigates the extent of second language (L2) use in four cognitive domains including mental calculation, planning (action plans), note-taking, and shopping lists. Participants include 149 highly educated L2-competent sequential Polish–English bilinguals who relocated to the UK1 in early adulthood, and underwent processes of acculturation. The independent variables in this study include acculturation level, social network profile, predicted future domicile, and length of residence. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Participants completed an online questionnaire and 14 were interviewed by the researcher. The study included the Complementarity Principle (CP) into the operationalisation and measurement of language use in bilinguals (Grosjean, 2010). The results show that acculturation level, social network profile, and predicted future domicile are strong predictors of the extent of L2 use in cognitive domains. Effects of context-specificity and language-dependence were also found, the latter specifically in the domain of mental calculation.