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Despite the longstanding underrepresentation of blacks in Congress, political science research has not settled on the cause. While there is increasing evidence that racial attitudes affect vote choice in today's congressional elections, how this effect interacts with the race of the candidates is unknown. This study addresses this debate by analyzing novel survey, census, and candidate data from the Obama era of congressional elections (2010–2016) to test whether racially prejudiced attitudes held by whites decrease their likelihood of supporting black Democratic candidates and Democratic candidates as a whole. In line with theoretical predictions, this paper finds that Democratic House candidates are less likely to receive votes among white voters with strong racial resentment toward blacks, and black Democratic candidates fare even worse. These findings help to explain the persistence of black legislative underrepresentation and contribute to theories of partisan racial realignment.
In 2012 the Chinese architect Wang Shu won the distinguished Pritzker Architecture Prize. Since then, his buildings and his architectural thinking have received increasing international attention. Among his many written works, Wang's PhD thesis ‘Fictionalising Cities’ - completed in 2000 under the supervision of Professor Jiwei Lu at Tongji University in Shanghai – is widely considered the definitive statement of his architectural thought and methodology. It comprises a structuralist study of the city and its architecture, doing so through the development of two key themes. The first is Wang’s theoretical discussion of the application of structuralist-semiotic approaches to architecture, urban research, and other areas in the humanities, and the second is his reading of the Chinese city and China's landscape architecture tradition in the light of this theoretical discussion. Wang believes that traditional Chinese cities have their own structure, components and rules of combination, and refers to them as instances of ‘texture city’ (), a term that proposes an analogy between Roland Barthes's notion of text and the city, both of which are understood as a ‘fabric of signifiers’.
This article presents the discovery of two fragmentary inscriptions which demonstrate the existence of an unknown naos of Zeus Sarnendenos in the northern part of the Choria Considiana, an extensive imperial estate in northeastern Phrygia. It also presents a votive offering to Zeus Sarnendenos and five new votive inscriptions to Zeus Akreinenos found in the village of Kozlu near İkizafer (ancient Akreina?), which was apparently part of another estate, belonging to the Roman senatorial family of the Plancii, situated to the east of the Choria Considiana. These inscriptions were found during the course of an epigraphic survey carried out in 2015 in Mihalıççık, a region located 90km to the northeast of Eskişehir in modern Turkey. The article consists of three main parts. It begins with an introduction to the historical and geographical backgrounds of the survey area; this is followed by a catalogue of inscriptions and, finally, an analysis of the sanctuary of Zeus Sarnendenos and the new votive offerings to Zeus Akreinenos, with reference to other evidence for the cult of Zeus in Phrygia and neighbouring regions. The inscriptions discovered in this area provide new information about the location and dispersal of the cult of Zeus in northeastern Phrygia.
Introduction: In 2016, a team at McMaster began developing GridlockED, an educational (or “serious”) board game designed to teach medical learners about patient flow in the emergency department. As serious board games are a relatively new phenomenon in medical education, there is little data on how marketed games are actually used once received by end-users. In this study our goal was to better understand the demographics and game usage for purchasers of the GridlockED board game, which will inform the further improvement or expansion of the game. Methods: Individuals who expressed interest in purchasing gridlockED via our online storefront were sent an anonymous online survey via Google Form. The survey collected demographic and qualitative data with a focus on the respondent's role in medicine, how they have used GridlockED, who they have played GridlockED with, and what changes or additions to GridlockED they would like to see. We also asked about changes for a potential mass-market version of the game targeted towards non-medical individuals. Individuals who did not purchase the game were asked about their barriers to purchase. We received an exemption for this study from our institutional review board. Results: 42 responses (out of 300 individuals on our mailing list, 14% response rate) were collected. Responding purchasers were from 16 different roles in healthcare and 11 different countries. The top 5 roles were: EM trainee, Community EM MD, Academic EM MD, Physicians from other specialties, and EM program director. The majority of respondents were Canadian (38%), with America (21%), New Zealand (10%), and Turkey (7%) the only other countries to have more than 2 respondents. 50% reported having played the game, with the most common use cases being for fun (76%), for teaching trainees (33%) or training with colleagues (19%). For those who did not purchase, price was the largest barrier (81%). 50% of respondents expressed interest in a disaster scenario expansion pack, with 33% interested in set lesson plans. Conclusion: GridlockED attracted interest from a wide range of medical professionals, both in terms or role and location. Users mainly reported using the game for fun, with fewer users using the game for teaching/training purposes. The main barrier to purchase was the game's price.
Introduction: GridlockED is an educational (or “serious”) game recently developed by a team at McMaster to teach medical learners about patient flow in the emergency department (ED). Beyond patient flow, we were cognizant that the game could provide additional learning opportunities for learners. The goal of this program evaluation project was to investigate workshop attendees’ experiences and identify what areas they found most educational. Methods: A GridlockED board game workshop was developed and delivered in several locations over the fall of 2018. Workshops targeted medical learners and were organized by local emergency medicine interest groups. After a standardized video-based introduction to the game concept and rules, the learners played GridlockED for approximately 90 minutes. After the play session, learners completed an anonymous survey consisting of 7-point Likert scale questions about their experience. They were also asked to identify the learning domains for which GridlockED was developed (Patient Flow, Communication and Teamwork, and ED Basics), and were asked via free-text to identify learning objectives from their experience. We received an exemption for this study from our institutional review board. Results: We had 25 respondents (24 medical students and 1 resident). Trainees rated GridlockED as both enjoyable to play and as a meaningful educational experience, with an average rating of 6.56 (SD 0.94) for enjoyability and 6.44 (0.92) for education. When asked what targeted learning domain was most helpful, 45% of students identified patient flow, 37% teamwork and communication, and only 18% ED basics. When asked to identify their top three areas of learning in open-ended responses, students actually identified resource management most frequently (48%), with improved communication skills (40%) as the second most prominent learning objective. Other interesting self-identified learning points were: a greater appreciation of the role of various providers (24%), the unpredictability of ED care (12%), and how things can go wrong (12%). Conclusion: Medical learners find GridlockED to be both enjoyable and educational. In our targeted areas of learning they found patient flow to be the most educational, but self-identified multiple other areas for learning. Students identified resource management and communication as key areas of learning, suggesting that future workshops might be designed specifically to teach these skills.
Oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects, but the role of dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess whether there are changes in thiol/disulphide homeostasis and nitric oxide levels in children with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and ventricular septal defect (VSD). A total of 47 children with congenital heart defects (24 TOF and 23 VSD) and 47 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were included in this study. Serum total thiol and native thiol levels were measured using a novel automatic spectrophotometric method. The amount of dynamic disulphide bonds and related ratios were calculated from these values. Serum nitric oxide levels were detected using a chemiluminescence assay. We found that the average native thiol, total thiol, and disulphide levels were decreased in patients with VSD when compared with healthy individuals (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.01, respectively). While native thiol levels were decreased (p < 0.01), disulphide levels were elevated in the TOF group (p < 0.05). We observed marked augmentation of disulphide/native thiol (p < 0.001) and disulphide/total thiol ratios (p < 0.01) in the TOF group. However, there was a significant decrease in native thiol/total thiol ratio in patients with TOF. No significant changes in these ratios were noted in the VSD group. We detected significant elevations in serum nitric oxide levels in children with TOF and VSD (p < 0.001 for all). These results are the first to demonstrate that thiol/disulphide homeostasis and nitric oxide are associated with TOF and VSD in children.
Objectives: Insomnia is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction. Evidence points to the role of nocturnal light exposure in disrupted sleep patterns, particularly blue light emitted through smartphones and computers used before bedtime. This study aimed to test whether blocking nocturnal blue light improves neuropsychological function in individuals with insomnia symptoms. Methods: This study used a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants were randomly assigned to a 1-week intervention with amber lenses worn in wrap-around frames (to block blue light) or a 1-week intervention with clear lenses (control) and switched conditions after a 4-week washout period. Neuropsychological function was evaluated with tests from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery at three time points: (1) baseline (BL), (2) following the amber lenses intervention, and (3) following the clear lenses intervention. Within-subjects general linear models contrasted neuropsychological test performance following the amber lenses and clear lenses conditions with BL performance. Results: Fourteen participants (mean(standard deviation, SD): age = 46.5(11.4)) with symptoms of insomnia completed the protocol. Compared with BL, individuals performed better on the List Sorting Working Memory task after the amber lenses intervention, but similarly after the clear lenses intervention (F = 5.16; p = .014; η2 = 0.301). A similar pattern emerged on the Pattern Comparison Processing Speed test (F = 7.65; p = 0.002; η2 = 0.370). Consideration of intellectual ability indicated that treatment with amber lenses “normalized” performance on each test from approximately 1 SD below expected performance to expected performance. Conclusions: Using a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design, we demonstrated improvement in processing speed and working memory with a nocturnal blue light blocking intervention among individuals with insomnia symptoms. (JINS, 2019, 25, 668–677)
The road to legalization of Medical Assistance in Dying (MAID) across Canada has largely focused on legislative details such as eligibility and establishment of regulatory clinical practice standards. Details on how to implement high-quality, person-centered MAID programs at the institutional level are lacking. This study seeks to understand what improvement opportunities exist in the delivery of the MAID process from the family caregiver perspective.
This multi-methods study design used structured surveys, focus groups, and unstructured e-mail/phone conversations to gather experiential feedback from family caregivers of patients who underwent MAID between July 2016 and June 2017 at a large academic hospital in Toronto, Canada. Data were combined and a qualitative, descriptive approach used to derive themes within family perspectives.
Improvement themes identified through the narrative data (48% response rate) were grouped in two categories: operational and experiential aspects of MAID. Operational themes included: process clarity, scheduling challenges and the 10-day period of reflection. Experiential themes included clinician objection/judgment, patient and family privacy, and bereavement resources.
Significance of results
To our knowledge, this is the first time that family caregivers’ perspectives on the quality of the MAID process have been explored. Although practice standards have been made available to ensure all legislated components of the MAID process are completed, detailed guidance for how to best implement patient and family centered MAID programs at the institutional level remain limited. This study provides guidance for ways in which we can enhance the quality of MAID from the perspective of family caregivers.
Multichannel analyzers, as used in energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers using Si (Li), High Purity Ge, or other types of detectors, receive a series of pulses, generally in the 5 to 10 volt range full scale, which they measure and count in memory. Some are constructed using hardwired digital logic circuits to perform these memory control operations, while others incorporate standard computer memories and central processing units, with programmed logic for storing, displaying and (generally) processing the spectrum, with the advent of ever more powerful and lower cost microcomputers, it becomes increasingly attractive to adapt one to this purpose. We have done so, using an Apple II, and will describe the hardware of the interface, the logic of the data acquisition programs, and the utilization of memory in the computer.
Mood and anxiety disorders are ubiquitous but current treatment options are ineffective for many sufferers. Moreover, a number of promising pre-clinical interventions have failed to translate into clinical efficacy in humans. Improved treatments are unlikely without better animal–human translational pipelines. Here, we translate a rodent measure of negative affective bias into humans, exploring its relationship with (1) pathological mood and anxiety symptoms and (2) transient induced anxiety.
Adult participants (age = 29 ± 11) who met criteria for mood or anxiety disorder symptomatology according to a face-to-face neuropsychiatric interview were included in the symptomatic group. Study 1 included N = 77 (47 = asymptomatic [female = 21]; 30 = symptomatic [female = 25]), study 2 included N = 47 asymptomatic participants (25 = female). Outcome measures were choice ratios, reaction times and parameters recovered from a computational model of reaction time – the drift diffusion model (DDM) – from a two-alternative-forced-choice task in which ambiguous and unambiguous auditory stimuli were paired with high and low rewards.
Both groups showed over 93% accuracy on unambiguous tones indicating intact discrimination, but symptomatic individuals demonstrated increased negative affective bias on ambiguous tones [proportion high reward = 0.42 (s.d. = 0.14)] relative to asymptomatic individuals [0.53 (s.d. = 0.17)] as well as a significantly reduced DDM drift rate. No significant effects were observed for the within-subjects anxiety-induction.
Humans with pathological anxiety symptoms directly mimic rodents undergoing anxiogenic manipulation. The lack of sensitivity to transient anxiety suggests the paradigm might be more sensitive to clinically relevant symptoms. Our results establish a direct translational pipeline (and candidate therapeutics screen) from negative affective bias in rodents to pathological mood and anxiety symptoms in humans.
The present study aimed to evaluate systolic and diastolic myocardial function in children and adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
The study included 44 children with the diagnosis of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 39 healthy children whose age, pubertal status, and gender were similar to those of the patient group. Anthropometric parameters and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were measured, and bone age was calculated. The average daily hydrocortisone dose was calculated over the last 1-year file records. Hyperandrogenic state was defined according to bone age SD score (⩾2) and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels (>10 ng/ml). Echocardiographic examinations were assessed by conventional two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging.
Patients had higher morphological parameters, such as left ventricular end-systolic diameter, interventricular septal thickness at end diastole, left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end diastole, left ventricular mass and index, than the control group (p<0.05). On pulsed-wave and tissue Doppler echocardiography, significant subclinical alterations were observed in systolic (isovolumic contraction time), diastolic (isovolumic relaxation time), and global left ventricular functional (myocardial performance index) parameters in the congenital adrenal hyperplasia group compared to the control group (p<0.05). In partial correlation analyses, after controlling the effect of hyperandrogenism, the mean hydrocortisone dosage was positively correlated with isovolumic relaxation time in congenital adrenal hyperplasia group (p<0.05).
This study demonstrated that the patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia are at risk for left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic myocardial subclinical alterations. Overtreatment may be responsible for the increased risk of myocardial dysfunction in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.