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At the intersection between statistical physics and rigorous econometric analysis, this powerful new framework sheds light on how innovation and competition shape the growth and decline of companies and industries. Analyzing various sources of data including a unique micro level database which collects historic data on the sales of more than 3,000 firms and 50,000 products in 20 countries, the authors introduce and test a model of innovation and proportional growth, which relies on minimal assumptions and accounts for the empirically observed regularities. Through a combination of extensive stochastic simulations and statistical tests, the authors investigate to what extent their simple assumptions are falsified by empirically observable facts. Physicists looking for application of their mathematical and modelling skills to relevant economic problems as well as economists interested in the explorative analysis of extensive data sets and in a physics-orientated way of thinking will find this book a key reference.
This is the first of three volumes that form the Encyclopedia of Special Functions, an extensive update of the Bateman Manuscript Project. Volume 1 contains most of the material on orthogonal polynomials, from the classical orthogonal polynomials of Hermite, Laguerre and Jacobi to the Askey–Wilson polynomials, which are the most general basic hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials. Separate chapters cover orthogonal polynomials on the unit circle and matrix orthogonal polynomials, with detailed results about matrix-valued Jacobi polynomials. A final chapter on moment problems provides many examples of indeterminate moment problems. A thorough bibliography rounds off what will be an essential reference.
Questioning others is one of the most powerful methods that children use to learn about the world. How does questioning develop? How is it socialized? And how can questioning be leveraged to support learning and education? In this volume, some of the world's leading experts are brought together to explore critical issues in the development of questioning. By collecting interdisciplinary and international perspectives from psychology and education, The Questioning Child presents research from a variety of distinct methodological and theoretical backgrounds. It synthesizes current knowledge on the role of question-asking in cognitive development and charts a path forward for researchers and educators to understand the pivotal function that questioning plays in child development and education.
This book serves as a practical guide for mental health practitioners working with children and adolescents with chronic medical concerns. It provides key information on current research and the theoretical foundations underlying many evidence-based assessments and interventions. Based on the current literature, readers are given empirically grounded practical guidance on how to assess patients, implement key clinical interventions, and navigate clinical dilemmas that may arise in different situations. The book covers common issues specific to working with young children, school aged-children, and adolescents, as well as particular medical conditions, and how to conceptualize and treat these concerns. Reproducible worksheets are provided to help clinicians apply what they learn to their clinical practice and to better manage common challenges. This readable book will be an invaluable introduction to the junior clinician, as well as a handy resource for the experienced practitioner, who can refer to relevant sections as specific problems arise.
As runaway slaves fled from the South to escape bondage, slave catchers followed in their wake. The arrival of fugitives and slave catchers in the North set off violent confrontations that left participants and local residents enraged and embittered. Historian Robert H. Churchill places the Underground Railroad in the context of a geography of violence, a shifting landscape in which clashing norms of violence shaped the activities of slave catchers and the fugitives and abolitionists who defied them. Churchill maps four distinct cultures of violence: one that prevailed in the South and three more in separate regions of the North: the Borderland, the Contested Region, and the Free Soil Region. Slave catchers who followed fugitives into the North brought with them a Southern culture of violence that sanctioned white brutality as a means of enforcing racial hierarchy and upholding masculine honor, but their arrival triggered vastly different violent reactions in the three regions of the North. Underground activists adapted their operations to these distinct cultures of violence, and the cultural collisions between slave catchers and local communities transformed Northern attitudes, contributing to the collapse of the Fugitive Slave Act and the coming of the Civil War.
This book provides an introduction to the legal system in Hong Kong. Understanding Hong Kong's legal system today requires both an understanding of the British origins of much of the laws and legal institutions as well as the uniquely Hong Kong developments in the application of the Basic Law under 'one country, two systems'. These features of the Hong Kong legal system are explored in this book, which takes into account developments in the two decades or so of the new legal framework in Hong Kong since the 1997 handover. In providing both an exposition of the legal institutions in Hong Kong and legal method under Hong Kong's legal system (including practical guidance and examples on case law, statutory interpretation and legal research), this book is ideal for first-year law students, students of other disciplines who study law and readers who have an interest in Hong Kong's unique legal system.
The Roman sanctuary at Bath has long been used in scholarship as an example par excellence of religious and artistic syncretisms in Roman Britain. With its monumental temple, baths, and hot springs, its status as one of the most significant Roman sites in the province is unquestioned. But our academic narratives about Roman Bath are also rooted in the narratives of our more recent past. This book begins by exploring how Georgian and Victorian antiquaries developed our modern story of a healing sanctuary at Roman Bath. It shows that a curative function for the sanctuary is in fact unsupported by the archaeological evidence. It then retells the story of Roman Bath by focusing on three interlinked aspects: the entanglement of the sanctuary with Roman imperialism, the role of the hot springs in the lives of worshipers, and Bath's place within the wider world of the western Roman Empire.
Human pregnancies contain large amounts of water in several compartments, including the fetal body, the placenta and membranes, and the amniotic fluid (AF). This water circulates within the conceptus and also between fetus and mother. Normal acquisition and circulation of water is critical to fetal health and development, and abnormal amounts of water, evidenced as insufficient (oligohydramnios) or excessive (polyhydramnios) amounts of AF, are associated with impaired fetal outcome, even in the absence of structural fetal abnormalities. This chapter will review the current understanding of water flow to the fetus and into and out of the amniotic cavity, and the evidence suggesting that the fetus may regulate AF volume.
In 1857 in England, Charles Locock reported that bromides helped control seizures. Others confirmed this efficacy, and it continued as the only true antiseizure drug (ASD) used chronically until the report of efficacy of phenobarbital (PHB) by Hauptman in 1912. Putnam and Merritt developed phenytoin (PHT) in the 1930s and brought it to market with improved side effects and somewhat greater efficacy than phenobarbital. Carbamazepine (CBZ), chemically unrelated to PHB or PHT but having comparable efficacy, was introduced in the 1960s in Europe, and the United States in the 1970s. Both CBZ and PHT were primarily effective against focal- or partial-onset seizures, with or without associated tonic–clonic attacks. No improvement was noted when used for absence, atonic, tonic, and myoclonic seizures. Ethosuximide was effective for absence seizures, but not focal-onset or tonic–clonic seizures. The introduction of valproate in the 1960s in Europe and in 1978 in the United States dramatically improved the ability to control these seizures. Despite these available antiepileptic drugs, approximately two-thirds of patients did not realize full control. Under the leadership of J. Kiffin Penry, MD, Director of the NIH Epilepsy Branch, and Harvey Kupferberg, PhD, the Antiepileptic Drug Development Program was initiated in a collaborative effort from government, industry, and academia. Since that time many new ASDs have become available. Many brought new mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetic properties, and improved safety or tolerability. Unfortunately, these drugs did not provide greater efficacy in comparative clinical trials than the older standard ASDs, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate. However, in individual cases one of the new ASDs can dramatically improve seizure control, even after many failures with other ASDs.
There is no single ultrasound probe available that allows visualization of all airway structures in children of all ages. In larger children above approximately 8 years of age, the linear medium-to-high frequency (5–14 MHz) transducer is suitable for imaging superficial airway structures (within 0–5 cm beneath the skin surface). The curved low-frequency transducer (~4.0 MHz) is most suitable for obtaining sagittal and parasagittal views of the tongue and structures in the submandibular and supraglottic regions, mainly because of its wider field of view. Linear transducers, which are used for assessment of the upper airways, provide excellent images of superficial structures, such as ribs and the pleura, but deeper structures can be difficult to assess. A micro-convex transducer (~8.0 MHz) is a good all-round transducer for focused ultrasonographic examination of the lungs, since most micro-convex transducers have an acceptable image quality of both superficial (pleura) and deeper structures (e.g., lung consolidation, atelectasis). Furthermore, micro-convex transducers are often small, which makes it easier to access the posterior thoracic wall, when the patient can only be examined in the supine position. An alternative to the micro-convex transducer for examination of the lungs is the curved low-frequency transducer (~4.0 MHz), which also has an acceptable image quality of both superficial and deeper structures. Since visualization of superficial and deep structures is needed, it is important to continuously optimize transducer frequency to obtain the best possible images. The presence or absence of artifacts are an important part of lung ultrasonography; hence, one should be mindful to deactivate any image optimization software that is inherently built into newer ultrasound machines as this would remove or diminish the presence of these useful artifacts when performing lung ultrasonography.