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Despite growing evidence suggesting a potential health benefit of high fiber intake for the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases, studies regarding the role of total dietary fiber intake, types and sources of fiber on asthma are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between dietary fiber intakes, and source of fiber with the asthma symptom score and asthma control. 35,380 participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort were included. Asthma was defined by the asthma symptom score (continuous) and asthma control by the Asthma Control Test (uncontrolled: ACT≤19). Fiber intakes (grams/day) were categorized according to sex-specific quintiles. Multi-adjusted negative binomial regressions were used to evaluate associations between dietary fiber with the asthma symptom score, and logistic regressions with asthma control. Participants were aged 54 on average (75% women). After adjustment for confounders, higher intakes of total, soluble, insoluble, fibers from cereals, fruit and seeds were significantly negatively associated with the asthma symptom score both among women and men; odds ratios (ORs) for the highest quintile of total dietary fiber compared with the lowest quintile were 0.73 (0.67–0.79) in women, and 0.63 (0.55–0.73) in men. We also found inverse significant associations between total, soluble and insoluble fiber with uncontrolled asthma both among women and men; ORs for participants in the highest quintile of total dietary fiber was 0.72 (0.55–0.95) in women and 0.45 (0.26–0.79) in men.
Following the revision of the French dietary guidelines in 2017, the Programme National Nutrition Santé – guidelines score (PNNS-GS), built upon previous recommendations released in 2001, needed to be updated. This cross-sectional study thus aimed to develop and validate the PNNS-GS2, a predefined food-based dietary index based on the 2017-revised French nutritional guidelines. A total of 80 965 participants recruited among French adults (≥18 years old) in the NutriNet-Santé web-based prospective cohort were included. Collected data included repeated 24 h-dietary records over a 2-year period, sociodemographic and, for 16 938 subjects, clinical and biological data. Weighting and cut-offs of the PNNS-GS2 components were collegially arbitrated by nutrition experts who participated in the 2017 revision of the guidelines. Sociodemographic, nutritional and clinical and biological factors were investigated according to quintiles (Q) of PNNS-GS2 (theoretical ranging −17 to +13·5). Mean PNNS-GS2 was 2·1 (sd 3·1) in women and −0·3 (sd 3·6) in men. Higher PNNS-GS2 (higher adherence to 2017 dietary guidelines) was positively associated with (mean difference between Q5 and Q1 in women/men) age (+8·4/+4·7 years), education (+3·9/+7·4 % of university level), physical activity (+13·3/+3·5 % of ≥60 min/d) and non-smoking (+9·7/+13·7 %), and was negatively associated with mean blood pressure (−3·0/−2·8 mmHg), plasma LDL-cholesterol (−0·07/−0·06 g/l) and TAG (−0·10/−0·16 g/l) concentrations. Higher PNNS-GS2 was also associated with higher intake of favourable nutrients, e.g. n-3 PUFA (+0·2/+0·2 % of energy intake), fibres (+8·7/+10·7 g) and vitamin C (+36·6/+43·8 mg). Associations between PNNS-GS2 and sociodemographic and nutritional factors arguing for its validation are coherent. Further studies are needed to evaluate its association with mortality and morbidity.
The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the predictive INTERSALT equation using spot urine samples to estimate 24-h urinary Na (24-hUNa) excretion and daily Na intake among the French adult population. Among 193 French adults (‘validation sample’), we assessed the validity by comparing predicted 24-hUNa excretion from spot urine and measured 24-hUNa excretion from 24-h urine collections. Spearman correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots were used and we calculated calibration coefficients. In a nationally representative sample of 1720 French adults (‘application sample’), the calibrated predictive equation was then applied to the spot urine Na values to estimate 24-hUNa excretion and daily Na intake. In that sample, predicted Na intake was compared with that estimated from 24-h dietary recalls. Results were adjusted and corrected using calibration coefficients. In the validation sample, the measured 24-hUNa excretion was on average 14 % higher than the predicted 24-hUNa (+13 % for men and +16 % for women). Correlation between measured and predicted 24-hUNa excretion was moderate (Spearman r 0·42), and the Bland–Altman plots showed underestimation at lower excretion level and overestimation at higher level. In the application study, estimated daily salt intake was 8·0 g/d using dietary recalls, 8·1 g/d using predicted INTERSALT equation and 9·3 g/d after applying calibration coefficients calculated in the validation study. Despite overall underestimation of 24-hUNa excretion by spot urinary Na, the use of predictive INTERSALT equation remains an acceptable alternative in monitoring global Na intake/excreted in the French population but its use is not advised at the individual level.
The number of people avoiding gluten is growing in many Western countries. However, little information is available on their sociodemographic and dietary profiles. We aimed to describe sociodemographic, behavioural and dietary profiles of participants avoiding gluten in the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort – excluding coeliac patients – who completed a questionnaire about food exclusions, with complete data on sociodemographic characteristics and dietary intake were included (n 20 456). Food group consumptions and nutrient intakes according to self-reported avoidance of gluten were estimated using ANCOVA adjusted for age, sex and daily energy intake. Based on principal component analysis, three dietary patterns (DP) were identified. Association between DP and avoidance of gluten was investigated using multivariate logistic regression. All data were weighted on the French census. A total of 10·31 (95 % CI 9·90, 10·73) % of the participants declared avoiding gluten, of which 1·65 % totally. They were more likely to be women, older persons, non-smokers, to have a lower educational level and declared more food intolerances. They had higher consumption of fruit, vegetables and lower consumption of dairy products, salty/sweet and fatty foods and alcohol. After adjustments on confounders, a healthy dietary pattern was positively associated with total gluten avoidance (ORQuintile5vsQuintile1 = 14·44, 95 % CI 8·62, 24·19). Our study highlighted that, in this population, individuals who avoid gluten from their diet tend to have a diet more favourable to health. These results can serve as a basis for future studies investigating the potential consequences of a gluten-free diet in non-coeliac population.
The role of diet in asthma is still debated. In France, a front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label based on a modified Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System/High Council for Public Health (FSAm-NPS/HCSP) has recently been implemented to help consumers to make healthier food choices during purchase. At the individual level, the FSAm-NPS dietary index (DI) has been shown to reflect the nutritional quality of the diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the FSAm-NPS DI and the asthma symptom score. In total, 34 323 participants (25 823 women and 8500 men) from the NutriNet-Santé cohort were included. The overall nutritional quality of the diet was assessed using the FSAm-NPS DI. Increasing FSAm-NPS DI reflects decreasing overall diet quality. Asthma was defined by the asthma symptom score (sum of five questions). Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the FSA-NPS DI and the asthma symptom score. Overall, mean participant’s age was 54 ± 14 years, and about 27 % reported at least one asthma symptom. We observed a significant positive association between less healthy diet, as expressed by higher FSAm-NPS DI, and the asthma symptom score. The adjusted OR were 1·27 (95 % CI 1·17, 1·38) among women and 1·31 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·53) among men. Unhealthy food choices, as reflected by a higher FSAm-NPS DI, were associated with greater asthma symptoms. These results reinforce the relevance of public health approach to orient consumers towards healthier food choices by using a clear and easy-to-understand FOP nutrition label based on the FSAm-NPS, such as the Nutri-Score.
A growing number of studies have explored overall health during ageing in a holistic manner by investigating multidimensional models of healthy ageing (HA). However, little attention has been given to the role of adherence to national nutrition guidelines in that context. This study aimed to investigate the prospective association between adherence to the French nutrition guidelines and HA. The authors analysed data from 21 407 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study with a median baseline age of 55·6 years (2009–2014) and initially free of major chronic diseases. HA was defined as not developing major chronic disease, no depressive symptoms, no function-limiting pain, independence in instrumental activities of daily living, good physical, cognitive and social functioning, as well as good self-perceived health. Adherence to guidelines of the French Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé or PNNS) was measured via the PNNS Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), using baseline data from repeated 24-h dietary records and physical activity questionnaires. After a median follow-up of 5·7 years, 46·3 % of participants met our HA criteria. Robust-error-variance Poisson regression revealed that higher PNNS-GS scores, reflecting higher adherence to nutrition recommendations (including both diet and physical activity guidelines), were associated with a higher probability to age healthily (relative riskquartile 4 v. quartile 1 = 1·17 (95 % CI 1·12, 1·22)). Supplementary analyses revealed that this association may, to a small part, be mediated by weight status. The results suggest that high adherence to the French national nutrition recommendations may be linked to better overall health throughout ageing.
In the current context of unsustainable food systems, we aimed to develop and validate an index, the sustainable diet index (SDI), assessing the sustainability of dietary patterns, including multidimensional individual indicators of sustainability. Based on the FAO’s definition of sustainable diets, the SDI includes seven indicators categorised into four standardised sub-indexes, respectively, environmental, nutritional, economic and sociocultural. The index (range: 4–20) was obtained by summing the sub-indexes. We computed the SDI for 29 388 participants in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, estimated its validity and identified potential socio-demographic or lifestyle differences across the SDI quintile. In our sample, the SDI (mean=12·10/20; 95 % CI 12·07, 12·13) was highly correlated to all the sub-indexes that exerted substantial influence on the participants’ ranking. The environmental and economical sub-indexes were the most and less correlated with the SDI (Pearson R2 0·66 and 0·52, respectively). Dietary patterns of participants with a high SDI (considered as more sustainable) were concordant with the already published sustainable diets. Participants with high SDI scores were more often women (24 %), post-secondary graduates (22 %) and vegetarians or vegans (7 %), without obesity (16 %). Finally, the SDI could be a useful tool to easily assess the sustainability-related changes in dietary patterns, estimate the association with long-term health outcomes and help guide future public health policies.
In the context of microbiology, recent studies show the importance of ribonucleo-protein aggregates (RNPs) for the understanding of mechanisms involved in cell responses to specific environmental conditions. The assembly and disassembly of aggregates is a dynamic process, the characterization of the stage of their evolution can be performed by the evaluation of their number. The aim of this study is to propose a method to automatically determine the count of RNPs. We show that the determination of a precise count is an issue by itself and hence, we propose three textural approaches: a classical point of view using Haralick features, a frequency point of view with generalized Fourier descriptors, and a structural point of view with Zernike moment descriptors (ZMD). These parameters are then used as inputs for a supervised classification in order to determine the most relevant. An experiment using a specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain presenting a fusion between a protein found in RNPs (PAB1) and the green fluorescent protein was performed to benchmark this approach. The fluorescence was observed with two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Results show that the textural approach, by mixing ZMD with Haralick features, allows for the characterization of the number of RNPs.
Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is used in the management of lower limb spasticity in children, which affects more than 2.5 million children worldwide. BoNT-A aims to improve active function and to prevent or delay future musculoskeletal complications. The objective was to evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of different BoNT-A to manage spasticity in children, in the absence of head-to-head evidence.
A systematic literature review was conducted in March 2016 to identify all relevant randomized controlled trials. The evidence base was synthesized by means of Bayesian network meta-analyses. Scenario analyses included standardized mean differences (SMD). The endpoints were Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Tardieu scale-spasticity grade and Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) (SMD only) at twelve weeks post-injection, and any adverse events.
Thirty-eight studies were identified, ten of which met the inclusion criteria for quantitative synthesis. For MAS, abobotulinumtoxinA 15 U/kg/leg was significantly better compared to onabotulinumtoxinA 4 U/kg/leg (−0.99 [−1.49; –0.50]), onabotulinumtoxinA 4 U/kg/leg + casting (−0.81 [−1.30; –0.32]) and numerically (although not statistically significantly) better than onabotulinumtoxinA 8 U/kg (−0.70 [−1.64; 0.22], Pbetter=93%). For GAS, abobotulinumtoxinA 15 U/kg/leg was numerically better than onabotulinumtoxinA 12 U/kg/leg. On Tardieu scale-spasticity grade, abobotulinumtoxinA was comparable to other treatments. AbobotulinumtoxinA 15 U/kg/leg showed the highest SUCRA value on MAS and GAS. On tolerability, abobotulinumtoxinA was found to have comparable or fewer adverse events than onabotulinumtoxinA 4 U/kg/leg.
Our analyses suggest that abobotulinumtoxinA offers a comparable or favourable efficacy on tone (measured by MAS), spasticity (Tardieu scale-spasticity grade), functional outcomes (GAS) and tolerability versus onabotulinumtoxinA, in the management of children with lower limb spasticity. The results must be interpreted in the context of the heterogeneity of the evidence base and sparse evidence base.
Nineteen eighty-eight marks a system break in Burma's modern history. To understand the significance of the events of the year we should set them in two different contexts. One is the context of states with command economies and Leninist parties which have undertaken perestroika with or without glasnost. The polar reform cases include the Chinese model, with economic liberalization starting in agriculture and politics being restrained after an initial opening, and the Soviet model, with economic liberalization attempted across the board and political openness encouraged as a spur to the perestroika process. These models offer only a partial context for our understanding of Burma since in both instances the movement can be characterized as reform rather than revolution: while there are significant redistributions of power and authority among state institutions and between state and society, and there are changes in external relations as well, still the basic legitimacy of the system remains in place, élite replacement is moderate, and the level of violence and coercion is low.
The other context is Burma's own cycles of reform and revolution during the last half century as shown below. (The numerologically inclined will note a periodicity of about a dozen years — actually 13.67 plus or minus 0.83 years.)
THE POLITY IN 1988
While the operative effects of any changes in direction for the economy during 1988 were obscure, political changes verged on revolution. The level of violence was high, the legitimacy of the regime collapsed, and the ruling élite, while maintaining its core institution, the army, went through a complete change of personnel at the top. Before analysing these fundamental changes, the chronological line of action will first be set out.
Chronology of the Crisis
The system break of 1988 began in March with a tempest in a teashop which grew into a full-scale student riot and brought on full-scale police repression. In contrast to the previous fall's student protests over demonetization, this series of riots spread to downtown Rangoon. The stage for public protest had been set by spiralling inflation and a shortage of fuel for transport, which left some areas of the country, and particularly the cities, short of rice.
A posteriori healthier dietary patterns and several nutrients have been associated with lower risks of depression in various studies; however, evidence is lacking with regard to the prospective association between adherence to nutritional recommendations (food-based and nutrient-based recommendations) and incident depression or depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigate such associations in the NutriNet Santé cohort. The study sample included 26 225 participants (aged 18–86 years) who were initially free of depressive symptoms. Adherence to nutritional recommendations was measured by four scores namely modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), using non-consecutive dietary record data during the first 2 years of follow-up (mean number of recording days=8, sd 2). Depressive symptoms were defined by a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score ≥17 for men and ≥23 for women. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95 % CI, modelling the dietary scores as standardised continuous variables and as tertiles. Over a mean follow-up of 6 years, we identified 2166 incident cases of depressive symptoms. All dietary scores with the exception of the AHEI-2010 were significantly inversely associated with incident depressive symptoms. In the fully adjusted model, an increase of 1 sd in the mPNNS-GS, PANDiet and DQI-I was, respectively, associated with an 8 % (95 % CI 4, 13), 5 % (95 % CI 1, 9) and 9 % (95 % CI 5, 13) reduction in the risk of depressive symptoms. Overall, these findings suggest that diet in accordance with national or international guidelines could have beneficial effects with regard to mental health.
Concerns have been raised about the potential health impact of ultra-processed foods (UPF) in the diet. Our objective was to investigate the contribution of UPF in the diet in a large French population and its association with sociodemographic factors and dietary patterns.
Cross-sectional analysis of dietary data from 74 470 participants in the web-based NutriNet-Santé cohort. UPF were identified in repeated 24 h records and the proportion (in weight) of UPF in the total diet (UPFp) was computed for each participant. Associations of sociodemographic characteristics and UPFp in quartiles were assessed using multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Food group consumption and nutrient intakes across quartiles of UPFp were estimated using linear regression adjusted for sociodemographic factors and energy intake.
UPF contributed 18·4 % of the foods consumed in weight and 35·9 % of total energy intake. Higher UPFp consumption was independently associated with male gender, younger age, lower education, smoking, and overweight and obesity (all P<0·0001). Participants in the highest UPFp quartile consumed lower amounts of fruit and vegetables (difference between quartile 4 and quartile 1 of UPFp, Δ=−180·3 g/d) and higher amounts of sweet products (Δ=68·5 g/d) and soft drinks (Δ=98·6 g/d; all P<0·0001). They had higher intakes of energy (Δ=610 kJ/d (145·7 kcal/d)) and added sugar (Δ=17·1 g/d), and lower intakes of fibre (Δ=−4·04 g/d), β-carotene (Δ=−1019·6 μg/d) and Ca (Δ=−87·8 mg/d; all P<0·0001).
UPF represent an important part of the diet in adults from the French general population and are associated with unbalanced nutritional intakes.
Between the early twentieth century and the 1960s, the Indian state began to incorporate the easternmost Himalayas. This article illuminates this state-making process by examining its material and communicative culture, embodied in tour diaries. These diaries were not private reflections written during one's spare time but the compulsory output of administrative tours. Often followed by more reflective notes, their perceived insights were used to determine local or general policy changes. Drawing on a literature that sees paperwork as constitutive of bureaucracy, this article argues that tour diaries exemplified and buttressed a certain form of frontier governance, marked by itinerancy and personalization well into independence. In their historical development, their language and materiality, their administrative usage, tour diaries embodied more than anything else the contingent, spatially uneven, and fractured nature of Indian state-making in the Himalayas, revealing the importance of process geographies anchored in paperwork circulation for its sustenance. Transmitted whole or extracted into policy files, diaries tied wandering officers together in a distinctive community of practice, policies, and ideas – preserving the fiction of the frontier state as a coherent whole in uncertain circumstances. As much as through maps, regulations, and routes, the frontier was made through writing.
It has been hypothesised that increased asthma prevalence in westernised countries is associated with changes in lifestyle factors, including a poorer diet. However, little is known regarding the association between diet quality and asthma. In the diet–asthma association, the role of BMI as a potential mediator needs clarification; moreover, potential effect modification by non-diet sources of oxidants, such as smoking, merits investigation. We investigated the association between diet quality and change in asthma symptoms, as well as assessed effect modification by smoking, while accounting for BMI as a potential mediator. Using data from the French prospective Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma study, we assessed diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010) at baseline and change in asthma symptoms (stable (reference), worsening, improved; mean follow-up time: 7 years). Mediation analysis was used to disentangle total and direct effects and the indirect effect mediated by BMI. The analyses included 969 adults (mean age 43 years; 49 % men; 42 % ever asthma). We observed a significant interaction between smoking and AHEI-2010 on change in asthma symptoms (Pfor interaction=0·04). Among never smokers (n 499), we observed a positive total effect (multivariable OR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·80) and a positive direct effect (OR 1·41; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·80) of the AHEI-2010 (per ten-point increment) on improved symptoms. No indirect effect mediated through BMI was observed (OR 0·99; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·07). Among former and current smokers, all effects were statistically non-significant. Better diet quality was associated with improved asthma symptoms over time in never smokers, independently of BMI.
We present a computational method for pseudo-circular object detection and quantitative characterization in digital images, using the gradient accumulation matrix as a basic tool. This Gradient Accumulation Transform (GAT) was first introduced in 1992 by Kierkegaard and recently used by Kaytanli & Valentine. In the present article, we modify the approach by using the phase coding studied by Cicconet, and by adding a “local contributor list” (LCL) as well as a “used contributor matrix” (UCM), which allow for accurate peak detection and exploitation. These changes help make the GAT algorithm a robust and precise method to automatically detect pseudo-circular objects in a microscopic image. We then present an application of the method to cell counting in microbiological images.
Chronic low-grade inflammation has been recognised as a key underlying mechanism for several chronic diseases, including cancer and CVD. Nutrition represents a host of key modifiable factors that influence chronic inflammation. Dietary inflammatory scores were developed to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet and have been associated with inflammatory biomarkers in cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the dietary inflammatory index (DII), the alternate dietary inflammatory index (ADII) and long-term C-reactive protein (CRP). We also tested age as an effect modifier of this relationship. Participants were selected in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants study, which included subjects aged 45–60 years old for men and 35–60 years old for women in 1994. Participants with ≥3 24-h dietary records at baseline and a CRP measurement at the 12-year follow-up evaluation were included in the present study (n 1980). The relationships between the DII and ADII and elevated CRP (>3 mg/l) were investigated using logistic multivariable regression. All analyses were stratified by age (cut-off at median age=50 years old). The overall associations between DII and ADII and long-term CRP were not statistically significant (Ptrend across tertiles=0·16 for DII and 0·10 for ADII). A quantitative interaction was found between ADII score and age (P=0·16 for ADII, 0·36 for DII). In stratified analyses the ADII was significantly prospectively associated with CRP only in younger participants: OR tertile 3 v. tertile 1: 1·79 (95 % CI 1·04, 3·07). Pro-inflammatory diets may have long-term effect on CRP only in younger subjects.
A lower BMI has been reported among consumers of organic foods, but this relationship has never been examined in a prospective design study. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between frequency of organic food consumption and weight change. We analysed data from 62 224 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort (78 % women, mean age=45 years) with information on consumption frequency of organic foods, dietary intake and repeated anthropometric data. For sixteen products, participants reported their consumption frequency of labelled organic foods (never, occasionally, most of the time). An organic score (OS) with a maximum of thirty-two points was computed. The associations of the OS (modeled as quartiles (Q)) with change in BMI during follow-up (on average 3·1 years) and with the risk of overweight and obesity were estimated by ANCOVA and multivariable logistic regression. A lower BMI increase was observed across quartiles of the OS (mean difference Q4 v. Q1=−0·16 (95 % CI −0·32, −0·01). An increase in the OS was associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity (among non-overweight and non-obese participants at inclusion): OR for Q4 v. Q1 were 0·77 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·86) and 0·69 (95 % CI 0·58, 0·82), respectively. Concerning obesity risk, the association was stronger among participants with higher adherence to nutritional guidelines. This study supports a strong protective role of consumption frequency of organic foods with regard to the risk of overweight and obesity that depends on overall dietary quality. Upon confirmation, these results may contribute to fine-tune nutritional guidelines by accounting for farming practices in food production.