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The study of nuclear weapons is dominated by a single theory - that of the nuclear revolution, or Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD). Although such theorists largely perceive nuclear competition as irrational and destined for eventual stalemate, the nuclear arms race between superpowers during the second half of the Cold War is a glaring anomaly that flies in the face of this logic. In this detailed historical account, Brendan Rittenhouse Green presents an alternate theoretical explanation for how the United States navigated nuclear stalemate during the Cold War. Motivated by the theoretical and empirical puzzles of the Cold War arms race, Green explores the technological, perceptual, and 'constitutional fitness' incentives that were the driving forces behind US nuclear competition. Green hypothesizes that states can gain peacetime benefits from effective nuclear competition, reducing the risk of crises, bolstering alliance cohesion, and more. He concludes that the lessons of the Cold War arms race remain relevant today: they will influence the coming era of great power competition and could potentially lead to an upsurge in future US government nuclear competition.
Newton's Principia is perhaps the second most famous work of mathematics, after Euclid's Elements. Originally published in 1687, it gave the first systematic account of the fundamental concepts of dynamics, as well as three beautiful derivations of Newton's law of gravitation from Kepler's laws of planetary motion. As a book of great insight and ingenuity, it has raised our understanding of the power of mathematics more than any other work. This heavily annotated translation of the third and final edition (1726) of the Principia will enable any reader with a good understanding of elementary mathematics to easily grasp the meaning of the text, either from the translation itself or from the notes, and to appreciate some of its significance. All forward references are given to illuminate the structure and unity of the whole, and to clarify the parts. The mathematical prerequisites for understanding Newton's arguments are given in a brief appendix.
The fourth edition of Statistical Concepts for the Behavioral Sciences emphasizes contemporary research problems to better illustrate the relevance of statistical analysis in scientific research. All statistical methods are introduced in the context of a realistic problem, many of which are from contemporary published research. These studies are fully referenced so students can easily access the original research. The uses of statistics are then developed and presented in a conceptually logical progression for increased comprehension by using the accompanying workbook and the problem sets. Several forms of practice problems are available to students and presented in a manner that assists students in mastering component pieces before integrating them together to tackle more complicated, real-world problems.
On March 4, 1865, in his second inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln called the country’s 4 million slaves “a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was somehow the cause of the war.” Lincoln’s use of “somehow” suggests not uncertainty about the importance of slavery, but an awareness that the institution meant different things to different people. To Southern whites, it was a way of life to be defended, but their levels of dependence or even support for slavery varied by individual and by and within regions. To Northern whites, it might be minimally important, or a threat to the white man’s labor, or the South’s means of controlling America’s politics, economy, and society, or central to their own prosperity. To say that slavery caused the war oversimplifies the issue; to say it played a minimal or limited role in Southerners’ decision to secede from the Union, and the Northern and Southern decisions to fight, ignores reality.
The essays in this volume of Fourteenth Century England engage with many of the themes and subjects which make the period so attractive to scholars and the wider public alike. The authors reflect on issues of kingship and changing theories of power at a number of levels; they tackle questions concerning loyalty and rebellion; examine the role of law, both domestic and international; give consideration to the nature of memory – legal, historical and fabricated; and they address the relationship between the Plantagenets and the rulers of those nations and territories over which England claimed dominion.
In so doing, the essays draw on a vibrant array of new scholarship, some of which was published in earlier volumes of FCE, that is transforming our understanding of and approach to the later Middle Ages. They also take advantage of sources which are now much easier to access and which can be interrogated in new ways. The digital revolution has shaped the direction of a good deal of recent research both in terms of international collaborations and what individual scholars may study and how they conduct their studies. The establishment of major databases and digitized source collections has been a key feature of this process. In addition to opening new avenues of enquiry such resources have also prompted a return to more familiar subjects by allowing investigations to be carried out in wholly new ways. Prosopographical work using such materials and employing data analysis software in order to explore the relationships between members of various groups is only one example of this.
As with earlier volumes in this series, several contributions to this collection originated in papers sponsored by the Society for Fourteenth Century Studies at the International Medieval Congress (University of Leeds) and the Society of the White Hart at the International Conference on Medieval Studies (University of Western Michigan). Over many years, these meetings have helped shape broader scholarly agendas as well as individual research projects while maintaining a tradition of friendly collegiality. They have ensured that the fourteenth century, a period of intense and often brutal change, is a very welcoming one to study.
A consideration of the lordship of Edward the Black Prince (1330–76) addresses themes and issues that have been central to much of Chris Given-Wilson's work. His analyses of the nature of Plantagenet power at home and abroad, the structure and ethos of the late medieval English nobility and the administration of and personnel involved in the management of aristocratic estates illuminate either directly or through comparison a wide variety of matters pertaining to the Black Prince's demesne. It is important from the outset to recognise the remarkable and, for a time, unique character of this assemblage of territories. Chester, Cornwall, Wales and Gascony (later extended to become the principality of Aquitaine) together comprised an unusually diverse and challenging political space. This paper offers some thoughts on the place of the Black Prince's lordship within the wider context of Plantagenet ambitions in the long fourteenth century and also reflects on matters of administration within his estates which replicated English approaches to governance, especially in the post-plague years. It asks whether we can see his administration as an example of the centralising tendencies of the Plantagenet ‘state’ imposed on areas where they proved profoundly unsuitable.
Devolved authority in the Plantagenet Empire
The prince lived during a period of enormous political turmoil and his career is indicative of the changing impulses that drove Plantagenet policy through the middle years of the fourteenth century. The eruption of the Hundred Years War just before his seventh birthday may be seen as the most significant development of his life. Edward played a crucial role in the initial phase of the Anglo-French struggle not only in his capacity as heir-apparent but also alongside and in some ways as one of the ‘new nobility’ Edward III (r.1327–77) elevated to political prominence in 1337. In the years that followed, the campaign for France refashioned and, in some ways, restored conceptions of Plantagenet lordship to an earlier pattern, returning the monarchy's geopolitical objectives to a focus across the Channel and away from those ‘British’ concerns that had been of increasing importance during and since Edward I's reign (1272–1307).
Use of the herbicide atrazine (ATR) is banned in the European Union; yet, it is still widely used in the USA and Australia. ATR is known to alter testosterone and oestrogen production and thus reproductive characteristics in numerous species. In this proof of concept study, we examined the effect of ATR exposure, at a supra-environmental dose (5 mg/kg bw/day), beginning on E9.5 in utero, prior to sexual differentiation of the reproductive tissues, until 26 weeks of age, on the development of the mouse penis. Notably, this is the first study to specifically investigate whether ATR can affect penis characteristics. We show that ATR exposure, beginning in utero, causes a shortening (demasculinisation) of penis structures and increases the incidence of hypospadias in mice. These data indicate the need for further studies of ATR on human reproductive development and fertility, especially considering its continued and widespread use.
Anecdotal evidence suggests the use of bolus tube feeding is increasing in long term home enteral tube feed (HETF) patients. A cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of bolus tube feeding and to characterise these patients was undertaken. Dietitians from 10 centres across the UK collected data on all adult HETF patients on the dietetic caseload receiving bolus tube feeding, (n=604, 60% male, age 58years). Demographic data, reasons for tube and bolus feeding, tube and equipment types, feeding method and patients’ complete tube feeding regimens were recorded. Over a third of patients receiving HETF used bolus feeding (37%). Patients were long-term tube fed (4.1years tube feeding, 3.5years bolus tube feeding), living at home (71%) and sedentary (70%). The majority were head and neck cancer patients (22%) who were significantly more active (79%) and lived at home (97%), while those with cerebral palsy (12%) were typically younger (age 31years) but sedentary (94%). Most patients used bolus feeding as their sole feeding method (46%), because it was quick and easy to use, as a top up to oral diet or to mimic meal times. Importantly, oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were used for bolus feeding in 85% of patients, with 51% of these being compact-style ONS (2.4kcal/ml, 125ml). This survey shows that bolus tube feeding is common amongst UK HETF patients, is used by a wide variety of patient groups and can be adapted to meet the needs of a variety of patients, clinical conditions, nutritional requirements and lifestyles.
Horseweed, also known as marestail, is a problematic weed for no-till soybean producers as it can emerge from late summer through the following spring. Over-wintering cover crops can reduce both the density and size of fall-emerged weeds such as horseweed and reduce further spring emergence, though typically they do not provide complete control. Cover crops may be integrated with additional spring herbicide applications to control emerged horseweed, and selective herbicides like 2,4-D may be used to target horseweed while maintaining small grain cover crop growth. However, cover crops may affect herbicide deposition which could reduce efficacy for weed control. The objective of this study was to determine how the amount and variability of 2,4-D ester spray solution deposition, measured with water-sensitive paper, was affected by a cereal rye cover crop and fall-applied saflufenacil. We also examined deposition at the soil surface relative to the cereal rye row position. In a year with greater cereal rye biomass accumulation, there was 44% less coverage and average deposit size was 45% smaller immediately adjacent to cereal rye rows compared to between rows and areas without cereal rye. Greater variability in these measurements was also noted in this position. Percent spray solution coverage was also 22% greater in plots that received saflufenacil in the fall, and deposits were 28% larger. In a year with less cover crop and winter weed biomass, no differences in spray deposition were observed. This suggests that horseweed plants, and other weeds immediately adjacent to cereal rye cover crop rows may be more likely to survive early spring herbicide applications.
One might not expect to find eleven immaculately painted plaster chicken heads in a museum of the history of science such as the Whipple Museum. The heads were made in the early 1930s and have been attributed to Reginald Punnett, Alfred Balfour Professor of Genetics at the University of Cambridge from 1912 to 1940. During his long career, Balfour conducted detailed breeding experiments with chickens, experiments that are themselves bound up with the invention for which he is best known today, the Punnett square, a tabular array still used in genetics to represent the outcome of a cross between two organisms. In this chapter, I investigate how both Punnett’s square and his chicken head models, qua visualisations, played different but related roles in the study and teaching of Mendelian genetics and heredity during this crucial period in the development of genetics in Britain. In so doing, I demonstrate that models and their uses in science are most clearly illuminated when their relations to and differences from other forms of visual media, including flat material such as the Punnett square, are made clear.
We examined the impact of stroke severity and timing to inpatient rehabilitation admission on length of stay (LOS), functional gains, and discharge destination.
Alberta inpatient stroke rehabilitation data between April 2013 and March 2017 were analyzed. We evaluated the impact of stroke severity, as measured by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), on timing to inpatient rehabilitation, functional gains, LOS, and discharge destination. Further, we examined whether timing to inpatient rehabilitation impacted the latter three factors.
The 2404 adults were subcategorized as mild (1237), moderate (1031), or severe (136) based on FIM at inpatient rehabilitation admission. Length of time to rehabilitation admission was not significantly (p = 0.232) different between stroke severities. Mean length of time (days) to rehabilitation admission was 19.79 (20.3 SD) for mild, 27.7 (35.7 SD) for moderate, and 37.70 (56.8 SD) for severe stroke. Mean FIM change for mild (M = 16.3, 9.9 SD) differed significantly (p = 5.1 × 10–9) from moderate (M = 30.4, 16.4 SD) and severe (M = 31.0, 25.7 SD) stroke. The mean LOS for mild stroke (M = 41.3, 31.9 SD) was significantly (p = 5.1 × 10–9) different from moderate stroke (M = 86.8, 76.4 SD) and severe stroke (M = 126.1, 104.2 SD). Time to inpatient rehabilitation admission showed a small, significant impact on FIM change (p = 1.4 × 10–9, partial η2 0.022) and LOS (p = 1.1 × 10–19, partial η2 0.042). Shorter times to rehabilitation admission and mild stroke were associated with discharging home without needing homecare.
Stroke severity has a significant impact on the conduct of inpatient rehabilitation. Yet, despite suggestions shortening timing to rehabilitation should improve outcomes, the impact on functional gains and rehabilitation LOS was small.