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Despite the global endorsement of the Sustainable Development Goals, environmental justice struggles are growing all over the world. These struggles are not isolated injustices, but symptoms of interlocking forms of oppression that privilege the few while inflicting misery on the many and threatening ecological collapse. This handbook offers critical perspectives on the multi-dimensional, intersectional nature of environmental injustice and the cross-cutting forms of oppression that unite and divide these struggles, including gender, race, poverty, and indigeneity. The work sheds new light on the often-neglected social dimension of sustainability and its relationship to human rights and environmental justice. Using a variety of legal frameworks and case studies from around the world, this volume illustrates the importance of overcoming the fragmentation of these legal frameworks and social movements in order to develop holistic solutions that promote justice and protect the planet's ecosystems at a time of intensifying economic and ecological crisis.
In this primer to the many-body theory of condensed-matter systems, the authors introduce the subject to the non-specialist in a broad, concise, and up-to-date manner. A wide range of topics are covered including the second quantization of operators, coherent states, quantum-mechanical Green's functions, linear response theory, and Feynman diagrammatic perturbation theory. Material is also incorporated from quantum optics, low-dimensional systems such as graphene, and localized excitations in systems with boundaries as in nanoscale materials. Over 100 problems are included at the end of chapters, which are used both to consolidate concepts and to introduce new material. This book is suitable as a teaching tool for graduate courses and is ideal for non-specialist students and researchers working in physics, materials science, chemistry, or applied mathematics who want to use the tools of many-body theory.
Noncommutative geometry combines themes from algebra, analysis and geometry and has significant applications to physics. This book focuses on cyclic theory, and is based upon the lecture courses by Daniel G. Quillen at the University of Oxford from 1988–92, which developed his own approach to the subject. The basic definitions, examples and exercises provided here allow non-specialists and students with a background in elementary functional analysis, commutative algebra and differential geometry to get to grips with the subject. Quillen's development of cyclic theory emphasizes analogies between commutative and noncommutative theories, in which he reinterpreted classical results of Hamiltonian mechanics, operator algebras and differential graded algebras into a new formalism. In this book, cyclic theory is developed from motivating examples and background towards general results. Themes covered are relevant to current research, including homomorphisms modulo powers of ideals, traces on noncommutative differential forms, quasi-free algebras and Chern characters on connections.
In the face of debates about the Anthropocene - a geological epoch of our own making - and contemporary concerns about ecological crisis and the Sixth Mass Extinction, it is more important than ever to locate the timeframe of human activity within the deep time of planetary history. This path-breaking book is a timely critical review of the anthropology of time, exploring our human relationship with the timescale of geological formation. Richard D. G. Irvine shows how the time-horizons of social life are a matter of crucial concern, and lays bare the ways in which human activity becomes severed from the long-term geological and ecological rhythms on which it depends.
Because the triarchic model of psychopathy posits that psychopathy encompasses the three dispositional constructs of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition, this formulation serves as an inclusive framework that can incorporate the primary elements of most models of psychopathy. Such a broad framework has numerous advantages for generating and organizing research on psychopathy. One limitation of this framework, however, is that it may not clarify what aspects of psychopathy are necessary or sufficient for identifying the condition. In the current commentary, the authors argue that none of the elements of the triarchic model are necessary or sufficient for psychopathy. Cleckley’s psychopaths were not mean, Karpman’s psychopaths were not disinhibited, and many contemporary theorists argue that boldness is not a necessary component of psychopathy. This difficulty defining the essential elements of psychopathy is not unique to the triarchic model and remains a challenge for the field.
In their commentaries, Lenzenweger (this volume) and Le and Cohen (this volume) have added important complementary perspectives to understanding and conceptualizing Cluster A disorders. Lenzenweger discusses Cluster A disorders in the context of previous theory and research on schizotypy and schizophrenia, for instance discussing how schizotypy is a distinct construct from Schizotypal Personality Disorder. Le and Cohen focus on situating Cluster A symptomatology in the context of efforts to move beyond traditional DSM categorical personality disorders as well as efforts to develop alternative assessment methods. These are both valuable complementary perspectives to the chapter that was focused primarily on research specifically on DSM Cluster A personality disorder categories.
In their chapter, Bach and Presnall-Shvorin (this volume) introduce guidelines for incorporating empirically-driven trait models of personality pathology, codified in the DSM-5 and ICD-11, into therapeutic practice. Though the authors of this commentary are supportive of the effort to bridge research with clinical practice, they suggest that a mechanistic model which accounts for personality processes underlying descriptive traits could offer greater precision than traits alone. Furthermore, they argue that clinical dysfunction can only be meaningfully defined and treated with an understanding of dynamic, contextualized aspects of personality. To illustrate how a mechanistic model could complement and extend Bach and Presnall’s recommendations, the authors present a case conceptualization using cybernetic theory. Finally, they review how idiographic data gleaned from ambulatory assessment methods provide insight into pathological processes ideal for therapeutic intervention. To achieve a generalizable approach flexible enough to adapt to the individual, they encourage the development of treatment models that go beyond traits to mechanistically link stable and dynamic personality features into a unified framework.
There is strong evidence that schizotypal PD is a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and an initial diagnosis of schizotypal PD is a strong predictor of future onset of schizophrenia. Despite this evidence, there are questions about whether schizotypal PD or the other Cluster A disorders as currently diagnosed best reflect traits indicating risk for schizophrenia. Further, it is still not empirically resolved to what extent positive schizotypal symptoms reflect genetic risk for schizophrenia. There is strong evidence that schizotypal PD is related to psychological trauma. At the same time, there is evidence that some schizotypal symptoms do appear to reflect variation on normal personality traits, but it is still unresolved whether and how schizotypal symptoms reflect high levels of openness to experience. Cluster A disorders appear to be more common than often assumed and have been associated with poor functioning, but there is a lack of treatment research on these disorders.
A revolution in the measurement and reporting of government performance through the use of published metrics, rankings and reports has swept the globe at all levels of government. Performance metrics now inform important decisions by politicians, public managers and citizens. However, this performance movement has neglected a second revolution in behavioral science that has revealed cognitive limitations and biases in people's identification, perception, understanding and use of information. This Element introduces a new approach - behavioral public performance - that connects these two revolutions. Drawing especially on evidence from experiments, this approach examines the influence of characteristics of numbers, subtle framing of information, choice of benchmarks or comparisons, human motivation and information sources. These factors combine with the characteristics of information users and the political context to shape perceptions, judgment and decisions. Behavioral public performance suggests lessons to improve design and use of performance metrics in public management and democratic accountability.
Most of what clinical psychology concerns itself with is directly unobservable. Concepts like neuroticism and depression, but also learning and development, represent dispositions, states, or processes that must be inferred and cannot (currently) be directly measured. Latent variable modeling, as a statistical framework, encompasses a range of techniques that involve estimating the presence and effect of unobserved variables from observed data. This chapter provides a nontechnical overview of latent variable modeling in clinical psychology. Dimensional latent variable models are emphasized, although categorical and hybrid models are touched on briefly. Challenges with specific models, such as the bifactor model are discussed. Examples draw from the psychopathology literature.
Environmental factors may be associated with the occurrence and exacerbation of psychopathological symptoms. Given these associations, studying individuals in the real world, as they go about their daily lives, is necessary to understand the patient experience. With the emphasis on recording information in real-time and in real-world settings, ambulatory assessment methods can be used to assess the dynamic interplay between individuals and the environmental influences on their behaviors. By monitoring the contextual information that drives pathological symptoms and behaviors, we can better understand the lived experience of psychological disorders and use this information to inform more personalized, cost-effective treatments. This chapter presents an overview of ambulatory assessment methods for studying psychopathology including the unique strengths and challenges associated with these methods. Furthermore, it discusses how ambulatory assessment methods can be utilized in treatments for psychological disorders. In particular, it focuses on the potential for ambulatory assessment technologies to revolutionize clinical treatments by intervening earlier in the symptom time course than conventional in-person strategies. Finally the chapter discusses ethical issues such as privacy and confidentiality associated with the use of electronic data and future directions in the development of interventions in psychopathology.