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It is known that the level of dietary protein modulates the enzymatic activity of the digestive tract of fish; however, its effect at the molecular level on these enzymes and the hormones regulating appetite has not been well characterised. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CP on the activity of proteases and the expression of genes related to the ingestion and protein digestion of juveniles of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.), as well as the effects on performance, protein retention and body composition of tilapia. A total of 240 juveniles (29.32 ± 5.19 g) were used, distributed across 20 tanks of 100 l in a closed recirculation system. The fish were fed to apparent satiety for 42 days using four isoenergetic diets with different CP levels (24%, 30%, 36% and 42%). The results indicate that fish fed the 30% CP diet exhibited a higher growth performance compared to those on the 42% CP diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake in fish fed 24% and 30% CP diets was significantly higher than that in fish fed 36% and 42% CP diets (P < 0.05). A significant elevation of protein retention was observed in fish fed with 24% and 30% CP diets. Fish fed with 24% CP exhibited a significant increase in lipid deposition in the whole body. The diet with 42% CP was associated with the highest expression of pepsinogen and the lowest activity of acid protease (P < 0.05). The expression of hepatopancreatic trypsinogen increased as CP levels in the diet increased (P < 0.05) up to 36%, whereas trypsin activity showed a significant reduction with 42% CP (P < 0.05). The diet with 42% CP was associated with the lowest intestinal chymotrypsinogen expression and the lowest chymotrypsin activity (P < 0.05). α-amylase expression decreased with increasing (P < 0.05) CP levels up to 36%. No significant differences were observed in the expression of procarboxypeptidase, lipase or leptin among all the groups (P > 0.05). In addition, the diet with 42% CP resulted in a decrease (P < 0.05) in the expression of ghrelin and insulin and an increase (P < 0.05) in the expression of cholecystokinin and peptide yy. It is concluded that variation in dietary protein promoted changes in the metabolism of the red tilapia, which was reflected in proteolytic activity and expression of digestion and appetite-regulating genes.
The current study aimed to select the strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from forage cactus plants and silage and assess their effects on silage fermentation and aerobic stability. Forty wild isolates from plant and cactus silage, classified as LAB, were evaluated for metabolite production and identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. These wild isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa and Weissella paramesenteroides and the LAB populations differed among the silage. The use of microbial inoculants did not influence gas or effluent losses in forage cactus silage. The silage inoculated with the microbial strain GP15 showed the highest number of LAB populations. The amounts of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ammonia nitrogen differed among the silage. The silage inoculated with the GP1 strain presented the highest WSC. Populations of enterobacteria and yeasts and moulds were below the minimum detection limit (<2.0 log cfu/g silage) in all the silage studied. The predominant action of inoculants was to maximize dry matter recovery of the silage, which could be the criterion adopted to select the strains of LAB for use as inoculants in Opuntia silage.
During weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI), the sows are usually fed with high feed level to improve the reproductive performance. However, the WEI has been reduced over the years which may reduce the impact of feed level on performance in the modern genetic lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two feeding levels (moderate feeding level (MFL): 2.7 kg/day and high feeding level (HFL): 4.3 kg/day) and two diet types (gestation: 13.67 MJ/kg of metabolizable energy (ME) and 0.62% of standard ileal digestible lysine (SID Lys) and lactation: 14.34 MJ ME/kg and 1.20% of SID Lys) offered during the WEI on reproductive performance. In total, 19.0% of sows were excluded from the analysis due to feed intake below 75% (9.6% and 28.5% in MFL and HFL groups, respectively), remaining 254 primiparous and 806 multiparous sows. Follicular size and change in BW were measured in subsamples of 180 and 227 females, respectively. Data were analyzed considering the sow as the experimental unit. Feeding level, diet type, parity and their interactions were included as fixed effects, whereas the day of weaning was considered as a random effect. The feed intake of MFL and HFL groups averaged 2.5 ± 0.02 and 3.8 ± 0.02 kg/day, respectively. There was an interaction between feeding level and parity for daily feed intake. Within HFL, multiparous sows consumed 181 g/day more than primiparous sows (P < 0.01), but no difference was observed within MFL (P > 0.05). Both primiparous and multiparous sows lost proportionally less weight when fed HFL than MFL gestation diet during WEI. The percentage of weight loss was lower in HFL than in the MFL group in multiparous sows fed the lactation diet. The WEI was not affected by feeding level, diet type or its interaction (P > 0.05), but it was longer in primiparous than in multiparous sows (P = 0.001). There was no effect of feeding level, diet type, parity or their interactions on anestrus and farrowing rates. Multiparous sows showed greater follicular size, and greater numbers of total born and born alive piglets in the subsequent cycle than primiparous sows (P < 0.05). In conclusion, feeding weaned primiparous and multiparous sows with 4.3 kg/day of a gestation (58.78 MJ ME and 26.66 g SID Lys) or a lactation diet (61.66 MJ ME and 51.60 g SID Lys) does not improve follicular size and reproductive performance in the subsequent cycle.
Daily use of high-potency cannabis has been reported to carry a high risk for developing a psychotic disorder. However, the evidence is mixed on whether any pattern of cannabis use is associated with a particular symptomatology in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients.
We analysed data from 901 FEP patients and 1235 controls recruited across six countries, as part of the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We used item response modelling to estimate two bifactor models, which included general and specific dimensions of psychotic symptoms in patients and psychotic experiences in controls. The associations between these dimensions and cannabis use were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models analyses.
In patients, there was a linear relationship between the positive symptom dimension and the extent of lifetime exposure to cannabis, with daily users of high-potency cannabis having the highest score (B = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56). Moreover, negative symptoms were more common among patients who never used cannabis compared with those with any pattern of use (B = −0.22; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.07). In controls, psychotic experiences were associated with current use of cannabis but not with the extent of lifetime use. Neither patients nor controls presented differences in depressive dimension related to cannabis use.
Our findings provide the first large-scale evidence that FEP patients with a history of daily use of high-potency cannabis present with more positive and less negative symptoms, compared with those who never used cannabis or used low-potency types.
Circular features made from mammoth bone are known from across Upper Palaeolithic Eastern Europe, and are widely identified as dwellings. The first systematic flotation programme of samples from a recently discovered feature at Kostenki 11 in Russia has yielded assemblages of charcoal, burnt bone and microlithic debitage. New radiocarbon dates provide the first coherent chronology for the site, revealing it to be one of the oldest such features on the Russian Plain. The authors discuss the implications for understanding the function of circular mammoth-bone features during the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum.
After the last damaging earthquake in 2012, an anti-seismic reinforcement project of the cathedral of Modena was designed giving us the opportunity to investigate and date the building materials. Radiocarbon (14C), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and thermoluminescence (TL) dating techniques were performed on the vaults with the aim to (1) clarify the construction timing, (2) define the history of the restorations, and (3) explore the possible correlation of the main restoration works to the earthquake chronology deduced from the historic catalog. Preliminary results show that medieval older bricks were reused for most of the original construction. Only lime and non-gypsum mortar was used for the original construction in the 15th century and for later repair of damage caused by earthquakes in the 16th and 17th centuries. Gypsum mortar was used for later repair in the 18th century. The results show much stronger damage due to earthquakes than previously thought.
To estimate the nutritional requirements of hair sheep, knowledge about the animal’s weight and its relationships with growth performances is essential. A study was carried with the objective to establish the relationships between BW, fasting BW (FBW), empty BW (EBW), average daily gain (ADG) and empty BW gain (EBWG) for hair sheep in growing and finishing phases in Brazilian conditions. Databases were obtained from 32 studies, for a total of 1145 observations; there were 3 sex classes (non-castrated male, castrated male and female) and 2 feeding systems (pasture and feedlot). The most representative breeds in the database were Santa Ines (n = 473), Morada Nova (n = 70) and Brazilian Somali (n = 47). The other animals in the database were crossbreeds (n = 555). The FBW (kg), EBW and EBWG (kg/day) were estimated according to linear regression. A random coefficient model was adopted, considering the study as a random effect and including the possibility of covariance between the slope and the intercept. The coefficients obtained from the linear regression of the FBW against the BW, EBW against the FBW and EBWG against the ADG did not differ between sex class (P > 0.05) and genotype (P > 0.05). The equations generated to estimate FBW from the BW, EBW from the FBW and EBWG from the ADG are as follows: FBW = −0.5470 (±0.2025) + 0.9313(±0.019) × BW, EBW = −1.4944 (±0.3639) + 0.8816 (±0.018) × FBW and EBWG = 0.906 (±0.019) × ADG, respectively. The low mean squared error values found in the cross-validation confirmed the reliability of these equations. Considering a sheep with a BW of 30 kg and a 100 g ADG, the estimated FBW, EBW and EBWG calculated using the generated equations are 27, 22.65 and 0.090 kg, respectively. In conclusion, the generated equations can be used in growing hair sheep. The validation procedure applied to the generated equations showed that its use for hair sheep seems to be appropriate.
In the present study, an effective secondary selection of transgressive variants from a homozygous population of Pusa Sugandh 3 (PS3) has led to the development of basmati variant SKUA 494. SKUA 494 exhibited a grain yield (7.9 t/ha) with superiority of 21.5% over its progenitor (6.5 t/ha). Besides, the genotype revealed an earliness of about 13 and 15 days for flowering and maturity, respectively. Hulling, milling and head rice recovery traits of SKUA 494 were comparatively better over the controls PS3 and Pusa Basmati 1509. No significant differences in the cooking quality were observed in SKUA 494 over its parental line. Quality traits of SKUA 494 revealed an intermediate score for alkali spreading value, besides similar values for gel consistency and amylose content in comparison to PS3. On the basis of stability variables, stability index and overall mean for most of the traits, SKUA 494 depicted stable performance across the locations and over the years. Molecular analysis based on simple sequence repeat markers revealed polymorphism at locus flanking the quantitative trait loci for days to heading (Hd6) between SKUA 494 and its parent (PS3). Based on overall superiority in the performance and adaptability of SKUA 494, the variety has been recommended to farmers for general cultivation under temperate ecology.
The current study was carried out to examine the effect of cottonseed processing and chitosan supplementation on lamb performance, digestibility and nitrogen digestion. Eighty uncastrated Santa Inês lambs (23 ± 2.2 kg average weight, 4 months old) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement that consisted of two cottonseed processing forms (whole or ground) and two chitosan levels (0 or 136 mg/kg live weight). Higher dry matter and organic matter apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) was achieved with the diets containing the whole cottonseed. Ether extract ADC was higher in the animals fed the chitosan-containing diet. There was an interaction effect on the ADC of neutral detergent fibre corrected for ash and protein, which increased with chitosan inclusion associated with the whole cottonseed. The lambs that received the treatment containing the whole cottonseed showed higher microbial protein synthesis. Chitosan addition increased nitrogen retention. The animals fed chitosan-containing diets showed higher microbial protein synthesis. There was an interaction effect on microbial protein synthesis. Whole cottonseed associated with chitosan in lamb diets increases ether extract ADC and microbial protein synthesis.
Automated weighing systems to monitor BW and supplement intake (SI) of individual grazing cattle are being developed to better understand the seasonal nutrition and performance of grazing livestock. This study established (1) the accuracy and repeatability of a commercial walk-over weighing (WoW) system for estimating BW and (2) the accuracy of an automatic supplement weighing (ASW) unit for estimating SI based on measuring time spent at the unit. The WoW and ASW units monitored BW and SI of 112 cattle consisting of 55 cows and 57 calves grazed on a 32.5 ha paddock for 41 days, with an average of 258 BW records collected per day. Static BWs were recorded at each mustering event (n = 7) and were compared to repeated measurements collected by the WoW on the day of each mustering event. Body weight was overestimated by the WoW, with the predicted BW of calves and cows averaging 10 and 21 kg heavier, respectively, than actual, and root MS prediction errors (RMSPE) of 5.1% and 5.5% of the static BW, respectively. For both calves and cows, 38% of the MS prediction errors (MSPE) was mean bias (MB) error and 9% of MSPE was slope bias error. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC; 0.90 v. 0.80) and modelling efficiency (MEF; 0.78 v. 0.62) of WoW BW for calves were higher than for cows, indicating that the predicted values were deviating from a 1 : 1 relationship and in particular as weight increases. A rolling average across five or more consecutive BW measures improved the accuracy of the WoW BW estimates. Regarding estimates of SI, the aggregated time the herd spent at the ASW unit was strongly associated with total SI (R2 = 0.92; P < 0.001). Further, positive linear relationships (P < 0.001) existed between cumulative weighted time spent at the ASW unit (min) and concentration of fenbendazole (FBZ) used as an intake marker and its derivatives (oxfendazole and oxfendazole sulfone) in the plasma of individual cows, with R2 of 0.54, 0.73 and 0.75, respectively. Although the WoW overestimated static BW, the low bias in the slope indicated that a linear regression model could be developed to adjust the WoW BW to reduce the MB and improve the estimate of WoW BW. The significant positive relationship between time spent at the ASW unit and individual blood FBZ concentration identified the suitability of the ASW unit for estimating SI by grazing cattle.
Goal-directed control guides optimal decision-making and it is an important cognitive faculty that protects against developing habits. Previous studies have found some evidence of goal-directed deficits when healthy individuals are stressed, and in psychiatric conditions characterised by compulsive behaviours and anxiety. Here, we tested if goal-directed control is affected by state anxiety, which might explain the former results.
We carried out a causal test of this hypothesis in two experiments (between-subject N = 88; within-subject N = 50) that used the inhalation of hypercapnic gas (7.5% CO2) to induce an acute state of anxiety in healthy volunteers. In a third experiment (N = 1413), we used a correlational design to test if real-life anxiety-provoking events (panic attacks, stressful events) are associated with impaired goal-directed control.
In the former two causal experiments, we induced a profoundly anxious state, both physiologically and psychologically, but this did not affect goal-directed performance. In the third, correlational, study, we found no evidence for an association between goal-directed control, panic attacks or stressful life eventsover and above variance accounted for by trait differences in compulsivity.
In sum, three complementary experiments found no evidence that anxiety impairs goal-directed control in human subjects.
Mental disorders are increasingly common among adults in both the developed and developing world and are predicted by the WHO to be the leading cause of disease burden by 2030. Many common physical conditions are more common among people who also have a common mental disorder. This scoping review aims to examine the current literature about the prevention, identification and treatment of physical problems among people with pre-existing mental health disorders in primary care in Europe.
The scoping review framework comprised a five-stage process developed by Arksey & O’Malley (2005). The search process was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included, with no restriction on study design.
The initial search identified 299 studies, with a further 28 added from the hand-search (total n = 327) of which 19 were considered relevant to the review research question and included for full analysis. Depression was the mental health condition most commonly studied (nine studies), followed by depression and anxiety (seven studies), with three studies examining any mental disorder. Eleven studies examined the effects of various interventions to address physical and mental comorbidity, with the most commonly studied intervention being collaborative care.
With just 19 studies meeting our criteria for inclusion, there is clearly a paucity of research in this area. Further research is essential in order to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the association between mental disorders and chronic conditions.
The increase of contact between natural and rural areas is prominent in Brazil, due to agricultural activities and concern with the environmental conservation. In this context, domestic animals, wild fauna and humans are exposed to mutual exchange of parasites, microorganisms and diseases. We studied tick parasitism of wild carnivores and domestic dogs, and the environmental of questing ticks, in extensive cattle ranch areas intermingled with natural vegetation, and in a natural reserve, both in a region of Cerrado biome, Midwestern Brazil. From 2008 to 2015, we inspected 119 wild carnivores from nine species, and collected six tick species (Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma tigrinum, Dermacentor nitens and Rhipicephalus microplus). The most numerous and infested hosts were Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Chrysocyon brachyurus, Puma concolor and Conepatus amazonicus. From 139 domestic dogs, we collected A. sculptum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. microplus. From vegetation, samplings resulted in A. sculptum, A. dubitatum, A. ovale, Amblyomma rotundatum and R. microplus, with dominance of A. sculptum. Domestics and wild animals presented high overlapping of infestations by A. sculptum, a generalist and anthropophilic tick species. This tick is the most important vector of the Brazilian spotted fever, a lethal human disease. This fact elicits attention and requires efforts to monitor the presence of pathogens vectored by ticks circulating in this type of agroecosystem, including in other regions of the Brazil, because the most of the natural vegetation remaining have been increasingly immersed in pastures and agricultural matrix.
Sierra Leone is the country with highest maternal mortality and infections are the underlying cause in 11% of maternal deaths, but the real burden remains unknown. This study aims to determine the incidence and risk factors of surgical site infection (SSI) post-caesarean section (CS) in women admitted to Princess Christian Maternity Hospital (PCMH) in Freetown, Sierra Leone. A prospective case–control (1:3 ratio) study was implemented from 1 May 2018 to 30 April 2019 and 11 women presenting with suspected or confirmed infection post-CS were screened for inclusion as a case. For each case, three patients undergoing CS on the same day and admitted to the same ward, but not presenting with SSI, were selected as controls. The post-CS infection rate was 10.9%. Two hundred and fifty-four clinically confirmed cases were enrolled and matched with 762 control patients. By multivariable analysis, the risk factors for SSI were: being single (odds ratio (OR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–1.66), low education level (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.55–1.84), previous CS (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.10–1.52), presenting with premature membranes rupture (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.18–1.88), a long decision–incision time (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.74–2.24) and a high missing post-CS antibiotic doses rate (OR 2.52, 95% CI 2.10–2.85).
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare genetic disorder leading to the growth of hamartomas in multiple organs, including cardiac rhabdomyomas. Children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma require frequent admissions to intensive care units, have major complications, namely, arrhythmias, cardiac outflow tract obstruction and heart failure, affecting the quality of life and taking on high healthcare cost. Currently, there is no standard pharmacological treatment for this condition, and the management includes a conservative approach and supportive care. Everolimus has shown positive effects on subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, renal angiomyolipoma and refractory seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. However, evidence supporting efficacy in symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma is limited to case reports. The ORACLE trial is the first randomised clinical trial assessing the efficacy of everolimus as a specific therapy for symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma.
ORACLE is a phase II, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre protocol trial. A total of 40 children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma secondary to tuberous sclerosis complex will be randomised to receive oral everolimus or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome is 50% or more reduction in the tumour size related to baseline. As secondary outcomes we include the presence of arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, intracardiac obstruction, adverse events, progression of tumour reduction and effect on heart failure.
ORACLE protocol addresses a relevant unmet need in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and cardiac rhabdomyoma. The results of the trial will potentially support the first evidence-based therapy for this condition.
In teleosts, vitellogenin (Vtg) is a phospholipoglycoprotein synthesized by the liver, released into the blood circulation and incorporated into the oocytes via endocytosis mediated by the Vtg receptor (VTGR) to form the yolk granules. The VTGR is crucial for oocyte growth in egg-laying animals but is also present in non-oviparous vertebrates, such as human. The VTGR belongs to the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily (LDLR) and is also named very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR). In this study, we identified and phylogenetically positioned the VTGR of a basal teleost, the European eel, Anguilla anguilla. We developed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and investigated the tissue distribution of vtgr transcripts. We compared by qRT-PCR the ovarian expression levels of vtgr in juvenile yellow eels and pre-pubertal silver eels. We also analyzed the regulation of ovarian vtgr expression throughout vitellogenesis in experimentally matured eels. The Vtg plasma level was measured by homologous ELISA experimental maturation. Our in silico search and phylogenetical analysis revealed a single vtgr in the European eel, orthologous to other vertebrate vtgr. The qRT-PCR studies revealed that vtgr is mainly expressed in the ovary and also detected in various other tissues such as brain, pituitary, gill, fat, heart, and testis, suggesting some extra-ovarian functions of VTGR. We showed that vtgr is expressed in ovaries of juvenile yellow eels with no higher expression in pre-pubertal silver eels nor in experimentally matured eels. This suggests that vtgr transcription already occurs during early pre-vitellogenesis of immature eels and is not further activated in vitellogenic oocytes. European eel Vtg plasma level increased throughout experimental maturation in agreement with previous studies. Taken together, these results suggest that vtgr transcript levels may not be a limiting step for the uptake of Vtg by the oocyte in the European eel.
Using legumes in forage mixes can help decrease the use of nitrogen fertilizers and possibly increase the nutritive value of pasture. The aim of the current study was to determine animal production and behavioural and ingestion parameters by evaluating the production and nutritive value of Aruana grass (Panicum maximum ‘Aruana’) intercropped with forage peanut (Arachis pintoi ‘Amarillo’) or fertilized with nitrogen. The treatments were N200 (200 kg N/ha per season – summer and winter), 100N + PE (100 kg N/ha per season plus pasture mixture with forage peanut) and N100 (100 kg N/ha per season). The presence of forage peanut in the pasture did not replace nitrogen fertilization as the pasture fertilized with 200 kg of nitrogen had a greater leaf/stem ratio (0.66 v. 0.54), stocking rate (2600 v. 2290 kg live weight/ha), average daily gain (0.880 v. 0.700 kg/day) and live weight gain (LWG) (652 v. 468 kg/ha) during summer. During winter, no effect of increased nitrogen fertilization on pasture and animal production was observed. In the total study period (summer + winter), a greater LWG (897 v. 741 kg/ha) occurred when a higher quantity of nitrogen (N200) was placed in the pasture compared to the insertion of forage peanuts in the system.