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It is important to understand the factors associated with more severe mood symptoms in bipolar disorder. The integrative cognitive model of bipolar disorder proposes that extreme appraisals of changes to internal states maintain and exacerbate mood symptoms.
The current study aimed to investigate if post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is related to current depressive and manic bipolar symptoms, and whether this relationship is mediated by appraisals of internal state.
Participants with bipolar disorder (n = 82) from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive therapy for bipolar disorder (the TEAMS trial) completed self-reported questionnaires assessing appraisals of internal state, generalized anxiety symptoms, and self-reported and observer-rated depressive and manic symptoms. Clinical interviews assessed PTSD co-morbidity.
Participants with bipolar and co-morbid PTSD (n = 27) had higher depressive symptoms and more conflicting appraisals than those without PTSD. Regression analyses found PTSD to be associated with depressive symptoms but not manic symptoms. Conflicting appraisals were found to be associated only with manic symptoms meaning that the planned mediation analysis could not be completed.
Findings provide partial support for the integrative cognitive model of bipolar disorder and highlight the need for transdiagnostic treatments in bipolar disorder due to the prevalence and impact of trauma and co-morbidity. Working on trauma experiences in therapy may impact on depressive symptoms for those with bipolar disorder and co-morbid PTSD.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
All Earth Science students need to understand the origins, environments, and basic processes that produce igneous and metamorphic rocks. This concise introductory textbook provides students with the essential knowledge needed to understand how petrology relates to other topics in the geologic sciences, and has been written specifically for one-semester courses. Throughout, the emphasis is on interpreting the mineralogy and petrology of rock suites in terms of origin and environment, with the first half of the book concentrating on igneous rocks, and the second half on metamorphic rocks. This Second Edition has been thoroughly revised and brought completely up-to-date. It now includes a new chapter on the application of stable and radiogenic isotopes in petrology, introducing students to the concept of isotopic fractionation and describing the process of radioactive decay. The discussions of phase diagrams, connections between igneous and metamorphic rock suites, and convergent margin magmatism have also been expanded. There is a new glossary of terms, updated end-of-chapter exercises, and updated further readings.