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Excavations of pre-pottery levels at Gua Talimbue and Gua Sambagowala in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, have yielded nearly 4kg of baked-clay fragments, half of which exhibit intentional patterning. The fragments appear to derive from clay hearths. Here, the authors link the patterning on Early Holocene (c. 9900–8800 cal BP) fragments with the intention to enhance the appearance of the hearths’ rims. During the Mid/Late Holocene (c. 4500–2000 cal BP), patterning shifts to the interior surfaces. The effort and specialised skills required to impress patterns on these hearths is, to date, unique in the archaeology of pre-Neolithic Island Southeast Asia.
The gas production (GP) technique has previously been used to estimate the gas volume (fermentable energy (FE)) of compound feed ingredients for ruminants (Newbold et al., 1996). It was shown that the FE content of feed mixtures was represented by the combination of the total gas from the incubation of the individual feeds. However this additivity might not be consistent throughout the incubation period. The objectives were to test whether 1. other GP parameters give better estimates of FE for simple mixtures and are they additive; 2. whether organic matter apparently degraded in the rumen (OMADR) explain differences in GP; and 3. to find out if there are any other better measures than OMADR for estimating FE.
The in situ and in vitro techniques have been adopted to estimate the degradability of organic matter (OM) in the rumen on the basis that this provides an estimate of ATP for microbial protein synthesis. However this assumption may be incorrect since ATP production requires the fermentation of degraded carbohydrate and Beever (1993) has shown that some degraded hexose can be used synthetically without ATP production. In addition, degraded OM from protein is likely to produce less ATP than the same amount of degraded carbohydrate. The gas production (GP) technique measures end products of fermentation and may be a better guide to ATP production. On the assumption that the in situ and in vitro techniques provide satisfactory estimation of OM degradability, the work discussed here used the GP technique to estimate the effective unfermentable OM fraction of the degraded OM (EUFDOM) for a range of concentrate foods.
Fermentable energy (FE) was defined in the latest United Kingdom metabolizable protein system as energy available for microbial protein growth and multiplication in the rumen (Agricultural and Food Research Council, 1992). In this system the FE value was calculated by subtracting the metabolizable energy (ME) of fat and ME of any fermentation products from the ME of the food. This estimation is indirect and largely based on whole tract digestion data, thus it can not take into account the influence of rumen outflow, fermentation and degradation rate and digesta retention time in the rumen. In addition, this approach does not take into account undegradable protein and /or starch. As a result, the precision of the FE values are questionable. Therefore a precise, accurate, rapid, cheap and direct technique to measure FE from food ingredients should be developed. Such a technique should consider the factors mentioned above. This work evaluated the ability of four techniques to estimate the FE value of concentrate foods for ruminants.
Fat content is one of the main factors affecting the degradability and fermentability characteristics of oil-rich foods estimated by means of the in situ, in vitro and gas production techniques. Filtered fat, considered degraded/fermented, is of limited value to the rumen microbes and may inhibit fermentation. Pre-extraction of oil may be one way to solve this problem. The rumen organic matter degradability (OMD) and fermentability (FOM) of concentrate foods were evaluated in this study with and without oil extraction.
The ramus communicans, neural connection between medial and lateral plantar nerves of the horse, was transected to determine the degree to which medial and lateral plantar nerves contribute to the plantar ramus. After 2 months, sections of plantar nerves immediately proximal and distal to the communicating branch were collected and processed for electron microscopy. All examined nerves had undergone Wallerian degeneration and contained regenerating and mature fibers. Layers of the myelin sheath were separated by spaces and vacuoles, indicating demyelination of medial and lateral plantar nerves. Shrunken axons varied in diameter and were surrounded by an irregular axolemma. Shrunken axoplasm of both myelinated and non-myelinated fibers contained ruptured mitochondria and cristae, disintegrating cytoskeleton, and vacuoles of various sizes. The cytoplasm of neurolemmocytes contained various-sized vesicles, ruptured mitochondria within a fragile basal lamina and myelin whorls of multilayered structures indicative of Wallerian degeneration. These ultrastructural changes, found proximal and distal to the ramus in medial and lateral plantar nerves, suggest that axonal flow is bi-directional through the ramus communicans of the pelvic limbs of horses, a previously unreported finding. As well, maturity of nerves proximal and distal to the ramus indicates that all nerve fibers do not pass through the ramus.
This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of metacognitive instruction through dialogic interaction in a joint activity on advanced Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ multimedia listening and their metacognitive awareness in listening comprehension. The data were collected through (N=180) male and female Iranian advanced learners ranging from 16 to 24 years of age in three groups. The first two groups were experimental (n=60), trained through a structured intervention program focusing on metacognitive instruction through dialogic interaction (MIDI) and metacognitive instruction (MI) for 10 sessions. The learners in the experimental group were involved in 60 minutes of practice twice a week. The third group was a control group (n=60), trained through regular classroom listening activities without receiving the structured intervention program. Multimedia listening tests and the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ) were used to track the advanced learners’ multimedia listening comprehension and metacognitive awareness. The results showed that metacognitive instruction through dialogic interaction did improve both the advanced learners’ multimedia listening comprehension and their metacognitive awareness in listening.