To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To assess the extent of error present in self-reported weight data in the Women’s Health Initiative, variables that may be associated with error, and to develop methods to reduce any identified error.
Prospective cohort study.
Forty clinical centres in the USA.
Women (n 75 336) participating in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) and women (n 6236) participating in the WHI Long Life Study (LLS) with self-reported and measured weight collected about 20 years later (2013–2014).
The correlation between self-reported and measured weights was 0·97. On average, women under-reported their weight by about 2 lb (0·91 kg). The discrepancies varied by age, race/ethnicity, education and BMI. Compared with normal-weight women, underweight women over-reported their weight by 3·86 lb (1·75 kg) and obese women under-reported their weight by 4·18 lb (1·90 kg) on average. The higher the degree of excess weight, the greater the under-reporting of weight. Adjusting self-reported weight for an individual’s age, race/ethnicity and education yielded an identical average weight to that measured.
Correlations between self-reported and measured weights in the WHI are high. Discrepancies varied by different sociodemographic characteristics, especially an individual’s BMI. Correction of self-reported weight for individual characteristics could improve the accuracy of assessment of obesity status in postmenopausal women.
Variation in human cognitive ability is of consequence to a large number of health and social outcomes and is substantially heritable. Genetic linkage, genome-wide association, and copy number variant studies have investigated the contribution of genetic variation to individual differences in normal cognitive ability, but little research has considered the role of rare genetic variants. Exome sequencing studies have already met with success in discovering novel trait-gene associations for other complex traits. Here, we use exome sequencing to investigate the effects of rare variants on general cognitive ability. Unrelated Scottish individuals were selected for high scores on a general component of intelligence (g). The frequency of rare genetic variants (in n = 146) was compared with those from Scottish controls (total n = 486) who scored in the lower to middle range of the g distribution or on a proxy measure of g. Biological pathway analysis highlighted enrichment of the mitochondrial inner membrane component and apical part of cell gene ontology terms. Global burden analysis showed a greater total number of rare variants carried by high g cases versus controls, which is inconsistent with a mutation load hypothesis whereby mutations negatively affect g. The general finding of greater non-synonymous (vs. synonymous) variant effects is in line with evolutionary hypotheses for g. Given that this first sequencing study of high g was small, promising results were found, suggesting that the study of rare variants in larger samples would be worthwhile.
M. fortuitum is a rapidly growing mycobacterium associated with community-acquired and nosocomial wound, soft tissue, and pulmonary infections. It has been postulated that water has been the source of infection especially in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to determine if municipal water may be the source of community-acquired or nosocomial infections in the Brisbane area. Between 2007 and 2009, 20 strains of M. fortuitum were recovered from municipal water and 53 patients’ isolates were submitted to the reference laboratory. A wide variation in strain types was identified using repetitive element sequence-based PCR, with 13 clusters of ⩾2 indistinguishable isolates, and 28 patterns consisting of individual isolates. The clusters could be grouped into seven similar groups (>95% similarity). Municipal water and clinical isolates collected during the same time period and from the same geographical area consisted of different strain types, making municipal water an unlikely source of sporadic human infection.
Dideoxy nucleotide sequencing of a portion of the 1D gene of SAT-type foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) was used to derive phylogenetic relationships between viruses recovered from the oesophageo-pharyngeal secretions of buffalo in the Kruger National Park as well as several other wildlife areas in southern Africa. The three serotypes differed from one another by more than 40 % while intratypic variation did not exceed 29%. Within each type, isolates from particular countries were more closely related to one another than to isolates from other countries lending credence to previous observations that FMDV evolve independently in different regions of the subcontinent.
Throughout the history of the Fatimid empire (909–1176/296–566), Byzantine sources support the idea that contact was kept to a minimum for trade. However, Arab historians reveal that in fact al-Mustansir engaged in correspondence, gift exchanges and embassies with several emperors. Descriptions of these mutual relations in the reign of al-Mustansir are a political mirror to the international effects of events such as the arrival of the Seljuk Turks, uprisings and civil war, and are also a fascinating insight into the diplomacy of Muslims and Christians banding together at a time of significant crisis for both.
Objectives: To assess the volume and range of diagnosis in new patients referred to paediatric cardiac outpatient clinics. Methods: Data was collected prospectively, using a proforma completed at all outpatient clinics over a period of three months. Results: There were 526 new referrals, representing an increase of almost one-fifth compared to 5 years ago. Of the referrals, 78 percent came from hospital doctors, and 22 percent from general practitioners, with 221 of those referred being infants. A heart murmur was the most common reason for referral, representing almost two-thirds of cases. In 372 patients referred (71 percent), the heart was discovered to be structurally normal. The proportion of patients with normal hearts referred by general practitioners and hospital doctors were 81 percent, and 68 percent, respectively (p less than 0.004). There was considerable variation in the pattern of referral between doctors working in different hospitals. Conclusion: New referrals to centres dealing with congenital cardiac malformations are increasing alarmingly, with the majority of the children referred having normal hearts. This increase in demand for specialist services has important implications for resources and training.
Purpose: Having previously reviewed the implementation of systematic in vivo dosimetry at the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital this paper examines the results of entrance dose measurements for specific sites/techniques and determines whether different action/alert protocols are required for these different categories.
Methods and materials: Entrance dose measurements using p-type diodes were analysed for the following treatment categories: Breast, head and neck in beam direction shell, abdomino-pelvic and intrathoracic. A 4% tolerance was applied.
Results: Mean deviations from expected dose and proportion of measurements exceeding tolerance were: Breast: +1.15%±3.04% (1SD), 238/1073≥4%; Head and neck: +0.35%±2.20% (1SD), 21/326≥4%; Abdomino-pelvic: +0.52%±2.75% (1SD), 93/712≥4%; Intrathoracic: −0.01%±2.75% (1SD), 22/119≥4%. Significant improvements in results for breast patients were noted following the introduction of a commercial breast board. The results for abdomino-pelvic patients confirmed a substantial variation in diode response under short FSD, wedged fields at 16MV (that had not been corrected for). The statistical uncertainty in dose measurement for each treatment category was calculated in order to assist determination of appropriate tolerance levels.
Conclusions: A blanket tolerance of 4% was generally too low given the extent of measurement uncertainty. The relatively high number of readings outside tolerance where identification of errors was difficult/impossible resulted in inconsistent application of the action protocol. Some widening of tolerances is likely to improve quality of procedure and treatment. Appropriate action levels are recommended for each treatment category.
The changes taking place in the mixed farming systems of northwest Syria were examined by re-visiting, in 1996 and 2000, five villages along a rainfall gradient. The villages had been surveyed first in 1977–79. In those villages with moderate rainfall, intensification of crop production, namely a trend towards cereal monoculture and the planting of tree crops, did not lead to specialization in cropping at the expense of sheep ownership. In contrast, households in the areas too dry for most rainfed crops except barley (Hordeum vulgare) were more likely to sell their sheep because they depended heavily on off-farm income. Increases in crop yields were found but these only benefited the families in villages in the higher rainfall zones. Conversely, with the exception of ewe fertility, there was little evidence of improvements in sheep productivity. The mixed farming systems in the five villages sampled are still passing through a period of transition, and the cropping component will undoubtedly continue to change. This is less likely to happen to the small ruminant component in the near future unless the sector is given higher priority in national policy. As a strategy to increase feed production and balance the crop rotations, the prospects for closer crop/livestock integration at the farm level are limited by the many difficulties associated with the introduction of leguminous pasture and forage crops.
An identifying characteristic of Staphylococcus aureus is the production of staphylocoagulase (coagulase). The aim of this study was to determine the clonal distribution of coagulase gene (coa) variants within populations of S. aureus defined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and protein A variation. The N-terminal region of the coa gene from 43 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and 252 methicillin-resistant (MRSA) S. aureus human isolates and 9 animal S. aureus isolates was amplified and digested with HinfI. Twelve types were identified amongst the MSSA isolates and the majority (93%) of MRSA isolates were assigned to 5 of the 12 types. MLST and PFGE analysis identified epidemic populations of MRSA and each epidemic population was characterized by a different coagulase type. Nine of the 12 MLST-defined clonal complex ancestral genotypes recently described each carried a different coagulase type suggesting that coagulase evolution and the evolution of the clonal complexes are intimately related.
A study was designed to investigate management factors that might influence the shedding of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 by beef cows in Scotland, where there is a particularly high rate of human infection. Thirty-two herds were visited at least monthly over approximately 1 year for collection of fresh faecal pat samples and information on management factors. The faecal pat samples were tested for VTEC O157 by established culture and immunomagnetic separation methods. Questionnaires were completed at the monthly visits to record management factors. Data were analysed using both univariate and multi-factor (GLMM) analysis. Changes in the number of cows in a group, dogs, wild geese, housing, and the feeding of draff (distillers' grains) were statistically significant as risk factors. The event of calving appeared to reduce the likelihood of shedding. Any effects of weaning or turnout were not statistically significant. It appears that the rate of shedding of VTEC O157 is influenced by several factors but possibly the most important of these are the circumstances of animals being housed, or, when outside, the presence of wild geese.
We have studied the formation of titanium silicides in the presence of an ultra-thin layer of Ta, interposed between Ti and Si. In-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD), resistance measurements and elastic light scattering were used to study the thin film reactions in real time during ramp anneals to 1000°C. On poly-Si substrates the Ta thickness was varied from 0 to 1.5 nm while the Ti thickness was held constant at ∼27 nm. The time-resolved XRD shows that the volume fraction of C40 and metal-rich silicide phases grows with increasing Ta layer thickness. Increased Ta layer thicknesses also delay the growth of the C49 disilicide phase to higher temperatures. Among the Ta thicknesses we examined, 0.3 nm is the most effective in lowering the C49-C54 transformation temperature. Films with Ta layers thicker than 0.5 nm do not completely transform into the C54 phase. The texture of the C54 phase is also sensitive to the Ta thickness. The C54 disilicide film is predominantly (010) textured for the Ti / 0.3 nm Ta sample. The final C54 texture is significantly different for Ta layers thinner or thicker than the optimal 0.3 nm. This suggests that the most effective thickness for lowering the C54 formation temperature is related to the development of a strong (010) texture. The possibility of a template effect by the C40 or metal-rich Ti5Si3 phases is also discussed on the basis of texture considerations.
Inter-sexual segregation between habitats or between sites within a habitat is very widespread in sexually dimorphic ungulates. As an explanation, it has been suggested that males, because of their larger forage requirements, are driven from preferred, high quality forage habitats into marginal habitats of lower forage quality but higher forage biomass by female competition (‘indirect competition hypothesis’). However, this hypothesis has hardly been tested. In the present study, we tested the indirect competition hypothesis for site segregation of red deer on the Isle of Rum, Scotland, within two vegetation communities: short Agrostis/Festuca grassland and Calluna heath. We predicted that: (1) males should choose sites within each vegetation community that are of higher forage biomass but lower forage quality, than sites selected by females; (2) the degree of inter-sexual site segregation should be highest within the vegetation community in which indirect competition was most intense. We found that the sexes were significantly segregated between sites within both vegetation communities, but males did not use sites of lower forage quality or of higher forage biomass than did females. Moreover, degree of site segregation was not significantly higher in the vegetation community in which competition was more intense (i.e. short Agrostis/Festuca grassland). We conclude that the indirect competition hypothesis cannot explain site segregation in red deer on the Isle of Rum.
It is proved that the monoid RN of all partial recursive functions of one variable is finitely generated, and that RN × RNis a cyclic (left and right) RN-act (under the natural diagonal actions s (a, b) = (sa, sb), (a, b) s = (as, bs)). We also construct a finitely presented monoid S such that S × S is a cyclic left and right S-act, and study further interesting properties of diagonal acts and their relationship with power monoids.
Over a period of seven years farmers participated in trials in which common vetch (Vicia sativa (V)) or chickling (Lathyrus sativus (C)) replaced the fallow in a barley (Hordeum vulgare)–fallow rotation (F) or were introduced into continuous barley cropping (B) – giving a total of four rotations, B–F, B–B, B–V and B–C. Trials on 4 ha, 2 ha per phase of each rotation, were replicated on 6–8 farms. Some vetch and chickling crops were grazed in spring. Mean seven-year dry matter yields were 2.91 t ha−1 for B–F, 4.82 t for B–B, 5.02 t for B–C and 5.32 t for B–V; total crude protein outputs were twice as high from rotations including legumes; and the B–V rotation yielded most metabolizable energy. Realizing the benefit, farmers started to adopt vetch. In 1991 three farmers were growing vetch on 7 ha but by 1997 174 farmers in 15 villages were growing vetch on 420 ha. Forage legumes will not, however, become more widely grown until inexpensive and efficient mechanized methods of harvesting the mature crop are available in order to avoid the high cost of hand labour. Drought and cold tolerance, early maturation and high harvest index may also enhance farmers' interest in forage legumes.
Three molecular typing methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), ribotyping, and
flagellin (flaA) gene typing, were used to discriminate within a group of 28 Campylobacter
jejuni, heat-stable serotype 55 (HS55) isolates derived from cases of campylobacter enteritis
occurring throughout Scotland, including 9 isolates associated with an outbreak. PFGE was
found to be most discriminatory, identifying 6 distinct profiles, followed by ribotyping (5
profiles), and then flagellin gene typing (4 profiles). The coincidence of all three genotypic
markers identified a dominant clonal line within the HS55 group, accounting for each of the
outbreak strains, and for 9 of the 19 sporadic strains. A second, closely related, clonal line
accounted for a further 5 of the sporadic strains, and also included the HS55 reference strain.
Identification and monitoring of such clonal lines should facilitate more effective future
epidemiological surveillance of C. jejuni.
Pendeo-epitaxial lateral growth (PE) of GaN epilayers on (0001) 6H-silicon carbide and (011) Si substrates has been achieved. Growth on the latter substrate was accomplished through the use of a 3C-SiC transition layer. The coalesced PE GaN epilayers were characterized using scanning electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The regions of lateral growth exhibited ∼0.2° crystallographic tilt relative to the seed layer. The GaN seed and PE epilayers grown on the 3C-SiC/Si substrates exhibited comparable optical characteristics to the GaN seed and PE grown on 6H-SiC substrates. The near band-edge emission of the GaN/3C-SiC/Si seed was 3.450 eV (FWHM ∼ 19 meV) and the GaN/6H-SiC seed was 3.466 eV (FWHM ∼ 4 meV).