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Through a long history of co-evolution, multicellular organisms form a complex of host cells plus many associated microorganism species. Consisting of algae, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses, and collectively referred to as the microbiome, these microorganisms contribute to a range of important functions in their hosts, from nutrition, to behaviour and disease susceptibility. In this book, a diverse and international group of active researchers outline how multicellular organisms have become reliant on their microbiomes to function, and explore this vital interdependence across the breadth of soil, plant, animal and human hosts. They draw parallels and contrasts across hosts in different environments, and discuss how this invisible microbial ecosystem influences everything from the food we eat, to our health, to the correct functioning of ecosystems we depend on. This insightful read also pertinently encourages students and researchers in microbial ecology, ecology, and microbiology to consider how this interdependence may be key to mitigating environmental changes and developing microbial biotechnology to improve life on Earth.
Suicidal ideation (SI) underlies risk of death by suicide. It is well established that patients with cancer are at increased risk of death by suicide. Therefore, understanding SI in patients with cancer is critically important. The goal of this systematic review was to investigate the prevalence, risk factors, intervention, and assessment of SI in patients with cancer.
This systematic review was registered with the PROSPERO database (CRD42018115405) and was guided by the PRISMA statement. We searched Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and assessed for quality assurance using a revised Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.
We identified 439 studies to screen for eligibility. Eligible studies included adults with cancer diagnoses and listed SI as an outcome. Ultimately, 44 studies were included in the analyses. Prevalence of SI ranged greatly from 0.7% to 46.3%. Single items drawn from validated measures were the most frequent method of assessing SI (n = 20, 45.5%); additional methods included validated measures and psychological interviews. Commonly identified risk factors for SI included age, sex, and disease/treatment-related characteristics, as well as psychological constructs including depression, anxiety, hopelessness, existential distress, and social support.
Significance of Results
Assessment of SI in patients with cancer is the concern of researchers worldwide. Prevalence of SI varied with study population and was likely influenced by the method of assessment. Psychological distress consistently predicted SI. Increasing awareness of demographic, clinical, and psychological associations is critical for risk assessment and intervention development.
This paper extends the work of Thompson, Beauvais, and Lyness (1999, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 392–415) on work–family culture by considering the role co-workers play. The proposed extended measure encompasses non-work spheres beyond the family as it has been established that much of the extant research does not include a large part of the workforce – those without childcare responsibilities (Kelliher, Richardson & Boiarintseva [2019, Human Resource Management Journal, 29, 101]). The extended measure constitutes Thompson et al.'s (1999) three original dimensions plus two additional dimensions: co-worker involvement (support and consequences) and gender expectations. Two quantitative studies confirmed that the extended measure is robust for different types of workers (part- and full-time, males and females). The co-worker dimensions were significantly associated with several outcome measures; however, the gender expectation dimensions added little additional variance in relation to employee outcomes. The results support the inclusion of co-workers as an important dimension of the workplace environment that supports work and life balance.
Managing large-scale, geographically distributed, and long-term risks arising from diverse underlying causes – ranging from poverty to underinvestment in protecting against natural hazards or failures of sociotechnical, economic, and financial systems – poses formidable challenges for any theory of effective social decision-making. Participants may have different and rapidly evolving local information and goals, perceive different opportunities and urgencies for actions, and be differently aware of how their actions affect each other through side effects and externalities. Six decades ago, political economist Charles Lindblom viewed “rational-comprehensive decision-making” as utterly impracticable for such realistically complex situations. Instead, he advocated incremental learning and improvement, or “muddling through,” as both a positive and a normative theory of bureaucratic decision-making when costs and benefits are highly uncertain. But sparse, delayed, uncertain, and incomplete feedback undermines the effectiveness of collective learning while muddling through, even if all participant incentives are aligned; it is no panacea. We consider how recent insights from machine learning – especially, deep multiagent reinforcement learning – formalize aspects of muddling through and suggest principles for improving human organizational decision-making. Deep learning principles adapted for human use can not only help participants in different levels of government or control hierarchies manage some large-scale distributed risks, but also show how rational-comprehensive decision analysis and incremental learning and improvement can be reconciled and synthesized.
Transient, steady and oscillatory flows in a
curved pipe are investigated both numerically and experimentally to understand secondary flow vortex formation and interactions. The results of numerical simulations and particle image velocimetry experiments are highly correlated, with a low error. To enable simulations in a smaller domain with shorter inlet section, an analytical solution for the unsteady Navier–Stokes equation is obtained with non-zero initial conditions to provide physical velocity profiles for the simulations. The vorticity transport equation is studied and its terms are balanced to find the mechanism of vorticity transfer to structures in the curved pipe. Several vortices are identified via various vortex identification (ID) methods and their results are compared. Isosurfaces of the
vortex ID are used to explain the temporal and spatial evolution of vortices in the curved pipe. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the velocity gradient tensor are calculated for the swirling strength vortex ID method, which also determines vortex axis orientation. The classical Lyne vortex in oscillatory flow with an inviscid core is also revisited and its results are compared with the transient and steady flows. These in-depth analyses provide a better understanding and characterization of vortical structures in the curved pipe flow. Our findings show that, although there are some visual similarities between cross-sectional views of steady/transient flows and oscillatory flows, the structure herein designated as Lyne-type vortex detected in the cross-sections (under steady, transient and pulsatile flows) is not the same as the classical Lyne vortex pair (in oscillatory flows).
Substantial clinical heterogeneity of major depressive disorder (MDD) suggests it may group together individuals with diverse aetiologies. Identifying distinct subtypes should lead to more effective diagnosis and treatment, while providing more useful targets for further research. Genetic and clinical overlap between MDD and schizophrenia (SCZ) suggests an MDD subtype may share underlying mechanisms with SCZ.
The present study investigated whether a neurobiologically distinct subtype of MDD could be identified by SCZ polygenic risk score (PRS). We explored interactive effects between SCZ PRS and MDD case/control status on a range of cortical, subcortical and white matter metrics among 2370 male and 2574 female UK Biobank participants.
There was a significant SCZ PRS by MDD interaction for rostral anterior cingulate cortex (RACC) thickness (β = 0.191, q = 0.043). This was driven by a positive association between SCZ PRS and RACC thickness among MDD cases (β = 0.098, p = 0.026), compared to a negative association among controls (β = −0.087, p = 0.002). MDD cases with low SCZ PRS showed thinner RACC, although the opposite difference for high-SCZ-PRS cases was not significant. There were nominal interactions for other brain metrics, but none remained significant after correcting for multiple comparisons.
Our significant results indicate that MDD case-control differences in RACC thickness vary as a function of SCZ PRS. Although this was not the case for most other brain measures assessed, our specific findings still provide some further evidence that MDD in the presence of high genetic risk for SCZ is subtly neurobiologically distinct from MDD in general.
The concept of electoral competition plays a central role in many subfields of political science, but no consensus exists on how to measure it. One key challenge is how to conceptualize and measure electoral competitiveness at the district level across alternative electoral systems. Recent efforts to meet this challenge have introduced general measures of competitiveness which rest on explicit calculations about how votes translate into seats, but also implicit assumptions about how effort maps into votes (and how costly effort is). We investigate how assumptions about the effort-to-votes mapping affect the units in which competitiveness is best measured, arguing in favor of vote-share-denominated measures and against vote-share-per-seat measures. Whether elections under multimember proportional representation systems are judged more or less competitive than single-member plurality or runoff elections depends directly on the units in which competitiveness is assessed (and hence on assumptions about how effort maps into votes).
The canonical problem of transonic dense gas flows past two-dimensional compression/expansion ramps has recently been investigated by Kluwick & Cox (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 848, 2018, pp. 756–787). Their results are for unconfined flows and have to be supplemented with solutions of another canonical problem dealing with the reflection of disturbances from an opposing wall to finally provide a realistic picture of flows in confined geometries of practical importance. Shock reflection in dense gases for transonic flows is the problem addressed in this paper. Analytical results are presented in terms of similarity parameters associated with the fundamental derivative of gas dynamics
, its derivative with respect to the density at constant entropy
and the Mach number
of the upstream flow. The richer complexity of flows scenarios possible beyond classical shock reflection is demonstrated. For example: incident shocks close to normal incidence on a reflecting boundary can lead to a compound shock–wave fan reflected flow or a pure wave fan flow as well as classical flow where a compressive reflected shock attached to the reflecting boundary is observed. With incident shock angles sufficiently away from normal incidence regular reflection becomes impossible and so-called irregular reflection occurs involving a detached reflection point where an incident shock, reflected shock and a Mach stem shock which remains connected to the boundary all intersect. This triple point intersection which also includes a wave fan is known as Guderley reflection. This classical result is demonstrated to carry over to the case of dense gases. It is then finally shown that the Mach stem formed may disintegrate into a compound shock–wave fan structure generating an additional secondary upstream shock. The aim of the present study is to provide insight into flows realised, for example, in wind tunnel experiments where evidence for non-classical gas dynamic effects such as rarefaction shocks is looked for. These have been predicted theoretically by the seminal work of Thompson (Phys. Fluids, vol. 14 (9), 1971, pp. 1843–1849) but have withstood experimental detection in shock tubes so far, due to, among others, difficulties to establish purely one-dimensional flows.
Calls to diversify second language acquisition (SLA) (e.g., Ortega, 2013) have led to increased interest in multilingualism and inclusion of groups less represented in samples of university students, such as individuals at older ages. Nevertheless, we still have more questions than we do answers. This article outlines a research agenda targeting older adult language learning and multilinguals at older ages, both in and beyond the classroom. Since a key difference between young and older adults is cognitive aging, I follow a cognitive approach, focusing on how individual differences in cognition may affect language and vice versa, and how relevant sociocultural factors add to the interplay between language and cognition. Notably, this is not always a story of decline and deficits, but instead of both strengths and weaknesses that differ from those of young adults.
The service user experience of children, their families and other stakeholders in a therapeutic program should inform quality of care, practice and organisation of services. Children referred to Take Two are clients of Child Protection for whom abuse and neglect have been substantiated. This paper aims to describe the development of the Take Two Stakeholder Survey, as well as to examine the reliability and factorial structure of the survey. In addition, the experience of consumers utilising the service will be described together with recommendations for clinical practice improvements and enhanced consumer engagement.
Compound heterozygotes occur when different variants at the same locus on both maternal and paternal chromosomes produce a recessive trait. Here we present the tool VarCount for the quantification of variants at the individual level. We used VarCount to characterize compound heterozygous coding variants in patients with epileptic encephalopathy and in the 1000 Genomes Project participants. The Epi4k data contains variants identified by whole exome sequencing in patients with either Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) or infantile spasms (IS), as well as their parents. We queried the Epi4k dataset (264 trios) and the phased 1000 Genomes Project data (2504 participants) for recessive variants. To assess enrichment, transcript counts were compared between the Epi4k and 1000 Genomes Project participants using minor allele frequency (MAF) cutoffs of 0.5 and 1.0%, and including all ancestries or only probands of European ancestry. In the Epi4k participants, we found enrichment for rare, compound heterozygous variants in six genes, including three involved in neuronal growth and development – PRTG (p = 0.00086, 1% MAF, combined ancestries), TNC (p = 0.022, 1% MAF, combined ancestries) and MACF1 (p = 0.0245, 0.5% MAF, EU ancestry). Due to the total number of transcripts considered in these analyses, the enrichment detected was not significant after correction for multiple testing and higher powered or prospective studies are necessary to validate the candidacy of these genes. However, PRTG, TNC and MACF1 are potential novel recessive epilepsy genes and our results highlight that compound heterozygous variants should be considered in sporadic epilepsy.
John Henry Johnstone (1749–1828), sometime cavalryman, promiscuous lover and Dublin tenor, spent the best part of forty years on the legitimate London stage, playing everything from Lucy in a cross-cast Beggars’ Opera to both ‘genuine’ and comic Stage Irish roles. Though deemed ‘most unmusical’ by Haydn, his greatest cultural influence was as a singer, particularly of ‘Irish’ songs. This chapter examines the figure of Johnstone as a cross-media production of Irishness, focusing upon these songs and their dissemination.
Cox Jensen’s essay is a rejoinder to Davis’s positive reading of Johnstone’s career and contends that the gradual fixing of this identity largely represented a diminution of Johnstone, subsumed within a role determined beyond the sphere of his own agency. Linking the growing consensus that Johnstone was the Stage Irishman to factors ranging from vocal technique to an association with the ‘poor Irish’ of London’s Seven Dials, Cox Jensen nuances recent accounts of the positive appropriation of Irishness, exploring the intermedial means by which the English cultural economy muffled and managed this most sonorous of Irish voices. Read in tandem with Davis’s piece, the essay gestures towards the spectrum of interpretative positions available when considering the resilience and authority of theatrical stereotypes.
Introduction: Emergency Department (ED) health care professionals are responsible for providing team-based care to critically ill patients. Given this complex responsibility, simulation training is paramount. In situ simulation (ISS) has many cited benefits as a training strategy that targets on-duty staff and occurs in the actual patient environment. Several evidence-based frameworks identify staff buy-in as essential for successful ISS implementation, however, the attitudes of interdisciplinary front-line ED staff in this regard are unknown. The purpose of this study is to identify contextual trends in interdisciplinary opinions on routine ISS in the ED. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative review, exploring the self-reported attitudes of interdisciplinary ED staff: before, during and after the implementation of a routine ISS pilot program (5 sessions in 5 months) at the Charles V Keating Emergency and Trauma Center in Halifax from Feb-Nov, 2018. Results: 149 surveys were received. Baseline support for ISS was high; 83% of respondents believed that the advantages of ISS outweigh the challenges and 47% favoured simulation in the ED, relative the sim bay (26%) and 28% were indifferent. The attitudes of direct participants in ISS were very positive, with 88% believing that the benefits outweighed the challenges after participation and 91% believing that they personally benefited from participating. A department wide post-ISS pilot survey suggested a slight decrease in support. Support for ISS dropped from 83% to 67%, a statistically insignificant reduction (p = 0.098) but a sizeable change that warrants further investigation. Most notably respondents reported increased support for simulation training in a simulation bay relative to ISS in the ED. Respondents still regarded simulation highly overall. Interestingly, when the results were stratified by position, staff physicians were the least positive. Conclusion: Pre-pilot or baseline opinions of ISS were very positive, and participants all responded positively to the simulations. This study generates valuable insight into the perceptions of interdisciplinary ED staff regarding the implementation and perceived impact of routine ISS. This evidence can be used to inform future programming, though further investigation is warranted into why opinions post-intervention may have changed at the department level.
Survivors of mass casualty incidents are vulnerable to both physical and psychological injuries. Hospitals need to triage the walking wounded victims, their loved ones, and witnesses for symptoms of emotional distress to ensure that those who are traumatized benefit from proactive psychological treatment. Hospitals must also manage the influx of searching family and friends, and be able to reunite them with their loved ones, to reduce chaos and prevent hospital skipping.
To analyze previous research on institutional psychosocial disaster response, what has or has not worked, and lessons learned in order to develop evidence-based future planning suggestions.
A literature search was conducted on the following electronic databases: (Medline 2007 to July 2018), (Embase 2007 to July 2018), (PsycInfo 2007 to July 2018). A combination of subject headings and free text keywords were used to perform the searches. After removing duplicates, abstracts were screened independently by two reviewers for the following inclusion criteria: 1) crisis intervention (in a disaster situation), 2) mention of psychosocial response or lack thereof and lessons learned, 3)relevant outcomes, 4) OECD countries, and 5) journal articles published 2007–Present. Review articles were excluded. Primary and secondary reviewers are in the process of discussing discrepancies. Data extraction will be conducted from all articles that meet the inclusion criteria. Key themes to be analyzed include psychological casualties, searching family and friends, and family reunification plans.
The initial search yielded 6,267 results. 5,294 articles remained after duplicates were removed. Of the 4,890 reviewed thus far, 269 articles met inclusion criteria.
Although a wealth of existing literature notes the need for an effective psychosocial response in mass trauma and disaster situations, no prior study has analyzed the efficacy of such interventions or laid out an evidence-based plan. This study will fill this much-needed gap in the literature.