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At the 1932 meeting three proposals before the Commission were referred to the directors of the national ephemerides (Trans. I.A.U. 4, 222, 282).
(1)That the equation of time be given with the same sign in all almanacs.
(2)The question of duplicate printing.
(3)The possibility of adopting a uniform system for star positions.
Although the directors have discussed these by correspondence, they wish to take the opportunity of verbal discussion in Paris before presenting their final report. The proposal that duplicate printing of apparent places of stars should be eliminated has been favourably received. A joint meeting with Commission 8 is being arranged for the purpose of discussing the selection and positions of future fundamental stars; at present the general trend of opinion favours the adoption of the FK3 of the Berliner Jahrbuch.
In accordance with action taken by the Commission at the 1932 meeting of the Union, the President has taken steps to ascertain the general opinion of computers and observers in regard to the co-operation of the Nautical Almanac offices in furnishing data for the equinox of 1900. The question under discussion is that of the adoption of the standard equinox to which observations and elements should be referred, e.g. 1900, 1950, etc. The opinion is being ascertained through a questionnaire, the results of which will be reported at the meeting. In this connection Commission 4 proposes discussion of the following resolution in co-operation with Commission 20:
“That, as from 1938 January 1, the equinox used for expressing the elements of cometary orbits and for cometary ephemerides shall be that of 1950.0. Further that, as from the same date, the equinox used in giving observed positions of comets shall be that of 1950.0, unless the observer, for good reasons, used some other equinox and expressly draws attention to the equinox used.”
In view of the considerable ground covered by the Commission at its Paris meetings and the fairly complete record of the activities of institutes and observatories, etc. published in the Minutes, it has not been deemed profitable by the president to call for further reports in advance of the Stockholm meeting. At the Paris meeting it was agreed that such reports be printed independently before each meeting of the Union and that reprints of or references to the published reports be sent to the president. It is hoped that all such reports if ready will be made available before the Stockholm meeting so that they may be summarized by the representatives in attendance or by the president and recorded in the Minutes. With reference to the pronouncement at the Paris meeting “that it is eminently desirable that more attention be given to the development of accurate general perturbations and mean elements on the basis of accurate osculating elements”, the president has visited the Planeten-Institut at Frankfurt and the Rechen-Institut at Berlin and has been in correspondence with the Leningrad Institute. From these sources particularly valuable material has been received.
(1)Report on the progress of the FK3 catalogue, and the volume of apparent places of the stars in this catalogue.
(2)At the meeting in Paris it was suggested that the value of the Gaussian constant k should be fixed, and the President was asked to consult people known to be interested. As complete agreement appears to have been reached, the following resolution will be moved: “That the value of the Gaussian constant k shall be taken as 0-01720 20989 50000, the unit of time being the mean solar day for 1900·0”
On July 31, 1930, Commission 3 reported that the names of two stars to which two names are commonly given had been settled. These two stars are:
Gamma Scorpii = Sigma Librae
Upsilon Persei = 51 Andromedae
They have been fixed as in Libra and Andromeda respectively. In accordance with the suggestion of the Secretary of the Union, this report was communicated to the Directors of the Nautical Almanacs, no objection being raised by the members of the Commission.
To develop a menu and resource to illustrate to consumers and health professionals what a healthy balanced diet looks like over the course of a week.
Development and analysis of an illustrative 7 d ‘eatwell week’ menu to meet current UK recommendations for nutrients with a Dietary Reference Value, with a daily energy base of 8368 kJ (2000 kcal). Foods were selected using market research data on meals and snacks commonly consumed by UK adults. Analysis used the food composition data set from year 1 (2008) of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme. The eatwell week menu was developed using an iterative process of nutritional analysis with adjustments made to portion sizes and the inclusion/exclusion of foods in order to achieve the target macronutrient composition.
Three main meals and two snacks were presented as interchangeable within the weekdays and two weekend days to achieve adult food and nutrient recommendations. Main meals were based on potatoes, rice or pasta with fish (two meals; one oily), red meat (two meals), poultry or vegetarian accompaniments. The 5-a-day target for fruit and vegetables (range 5–6·7 portions) was achieved daily. Mean salt content was below recommended maximum levels (<6 g/d). All key macro- and micronutrient values were achieved.
Affordable foods, and those widely consumed by British adults, can be incorporated within a 7 d healthy balanced menu. Future research should investigate the effect of using the eatwell week on adults’ dietary habits and health-related outcomes.
While it is possible to grow epitaxial CoSi2 films of a high quality using UHV technology it is much more difficult to produce films of similar quality under high vacuum and non-“clean room” conditions. Tung et al.1 have however shown that films of a good quality can be produced under these poorer conditions with the aid of a laser anneal of an appropriate power followed by a short thermal anneal. In this paper the role of the laser anneal, and of the (post laser) thermal anneal, in the production of epitaxial films is examined. It appears that the principle role of the laser anneal is to induce the epitaxial CoSi2 formation at the silicon / silicide interface, and that this epitaxial layer then acts as a seed for epitaxial film growth during the subsequent thermal anneal.
The material to be described here was taken from individuals of a school of Pseudorca crassidens, forty-one of which were stranded at Buddon Ness in the estuary of the Tay in November 1935. There is very little published work on this species beyond reports on the occurrence of stranded individuals. Beebe (1924) refers to six skeletons found on the shores of the Galapagos Archipelago, and West (1935) gave a preliminary account of a male fœtus taken from a female stranded in Wales. More recently, Peacock, Comrie, and Greenshields (1936) gave an account of the Tay specimens, while Fraser (1936) published a review of various strandings around our British coasts, and Gill (1935) has dealt with those stranded in South Africa (see abstract in Nature, September 1936). With regard to the reproductive system valuable assistance has been obtained from recent researches on other species by MacIntosh and Wheeler (1929), Wheeler (1930), Ommanney (1932), and Laurie (1937), published in Discovery Reports, while earlier papers, also on other species, by Schulte (1916) and Meek (1918) have also been consulted.
Rutherford backscattering has been used to study metal/disilicide thin film interactions for Ni and Co. Upon heating, the metal first reacted with the disilicide to form Ni2Si and Co2Si, respectively. After complete consumption of the free metal, the monosilicide phase was found to form at temperatures between 350°C and 550°C. In the case of Co it was found that after all the metal had been converted to CoSi in this way, the reaction stopped. In the Si<>/NiSi2/Ni system, however, all the disilicide converted to NiSi, even though the thickness of the deposited metal was insufficient to account for this. For this to occur, the disilicide had to dissociate into NiSi and Si, with the excess silicon regrown epitaxially on the silicon substrate.
The stability of NiSi2 under various boundary conditions was investigated to determine the factors affecting dissociation. Partial dissociation was found to occur when the NiSi2/Ni reaction proceeded on an inert SiO2 substrate. The disilicide was stable, however, in the Si<>/NiSi/NiSi2 structure. Argon sputtering at temperature was found to induce complete dissociation of NiSi2 on single-crystal Si. We believe that the NiSi2 instability is due to the very small heat of formation from the monosilicide. In such a case, the thermodynamic driving forces are small enough that the reaction can be significantly influenced by the presence of kinetic barriers.
The Sonoran Desert Border Region HERO consists of two watersheds, the Santa Cruz River and the San Pedro River, as well as the counties and municipalities predominantly situated in these watersheds. Both watersheds straddle the United States–Mexico border with their rivers flowing north from Sonora, Mexico into Arizona, United States. On the Arizona side, Santa Cruz and Cochise Counties reside mainly in these basins and rely on the groundwater sources within the basins. On the Sonoran side, there are five municipalities: Nogales and Santa Cruz in the Santa Cruz Basin, and Cananea, Naco, and Agua Prieta in the San Pedro Basin. Most of the population in this border region lives in two urban transborder communities: Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, situated on the western side of the study area and together referred to as Ambos Nogales; and Douglas, Arizona and Agua Prieta, Sonora situated on the eastern side. A third transborder community, Naco, Arizona and Naco, Sonora, located just west of Douglas/Agua Prieta, is very small. Other settlements of significant size dot the region, including Sierra Vista, Rio Rico, Douglas, and Benson on the Arizona side, and Santa Cruz and Cananea on the Sonoran side (Figure 14.1).
The Sonoran Desert Border Region is semi-arid to arid, with summer temperatures frequently reaching over 104°F (40°C). The region experiences bimodal winter/summer precipitation patterns resulting from midlatitude frontal systems in winter and from thunderstorms within the regional North American monsoon circulation in summer (Adams and Comrie 1997; Sheppard et al. 2002).
The vision: sustainable communities on a sustainable planet
Imagine a world where nature and society coexist in a healthy symbiosis, where human impacts on the environment are minimal, and where communities are safe from natural and technological hazards. Imagine a time when scientists can monitor such sustainable human–environment interactions, when they can interactively share and compare data, analyses, and ideas about those interactions from their homes and offices, and when they can collaborate with local, regional, and international colleagues and stakeholders in a global network devoted to the environmental sustainability of their communities and of the planet.
We contend that to build the sustainable world portrayed above, it is necessary to develop an infrastructure that will support such an edifice. Consequently, this chapter introduces our ideas about the infrastructure needed to realize this vision and how the Human–Environment Regional Observatory project (HERO) attempted to take the initial steps to develop that infrastructure. The chapter also demonstrates that HERO addressed several major growth areas of twenty-first-century science – complex systems, interdisciplinary research, usable knowledge/usable science, and transdisciplinarity – as integral parts of its infrastructure development. The chapter ends by laying out the rationale behind and structure of this book.
Achieving the vision: infrastructure development and HERO
Infrastructure for monitoring global change in local places
To paraphrase the American politician Tip O'Neill, “all global change is local.” On the one hand, anthropogenic global environmental change is the accumulated result of billions of individual actions occurring at billions of specific locations.
This book started with the premise that to develop sustainable communities on a sustainable planet, an infrastructure should exist that enables scientists to monitor local human–environment interactions, to share and compare data, analyses, and ideas with scientists at other locales, and to participate with colleagues and stakeholders in a global network dedicated to community-level sustainability.
The book recounted the Human–Environment Regional Observatory (HERO) project's attempt to take first steps in developing such an infrastructure and the concepts and research behind that infrastructure. As such, the project did not produce – and never intended to produce – definitive research results about, for example, vulnerability or the causes and consequences of land-use and land-cover change. Consequently, this book has concentrated on conceptualizing the elements needed to make human–environment infrastructure work, and on exploring those elements by proof-of-concept testing.
This chapter summarizes HERO's efforts (and therefore the book) by revisiting a set of questions posed in Chapter 1. The most important part of the chapter is the discussion of lessons learned during the HERO team's attempts to answer those questions. The chapter concludes by trying to support the project's (and book's) claim that there is a need for HEROs.
Answers to and lessons learned from HERO's guiding questions
Chapter 1 reported two fundamental questions that were central to the HERO effort. One overarching question guided the research and addressed infrastructure development via three less-encompassing questions (Table 15.1).
Vulnerability is a concept that captures the dynamic interactions between complex human systems and complex environmental systems. Thus, a vulnerability assessment that produces a static view of human–environment interactions (i.e., by examining one place at one time) will likely provide only limited – and potentially misleading – insight into how the coupled system works. Of course, such static pictures are common in this research domain because it is challenging to establish the temporal evolution of vulnerability (i.e., one place or many places over time). Especially in the context of having limited resources to conduct a vulnerability assessment, a solution to this challenge is to ignore variations over time in favor of examining variations over geographic space (i.e., many places at one time; see Mendelsohn et al. 1994; Carbone 1995; Polsky 2004). We argue that executing a many-places-at-one-time approach requires that all the places adopt a common research protocol; to our knowledge such a networked vulnerability assessment has yet to be reported in the literature. In this chapter, we report results from our effort to examine vulnerabilities – using a rapidly executable and commonly executed methodology – in four distinct study sites in the United States.
As explained in Chapter 1, the HERO project sought to develop infrastructure for studying and monitoring human–environment interactions at individual sites and to enable cross-site comparisons and generalizations. To test how well these concepts and tools work in practice, the project addressed the question, “How does land-use change influence vulnerability to droughts and floods?