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GENDERED EXPERIENCES OF TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE
Susana Sácouto, Professorial Lecturer-in-Residence and Director, War Crimes Research Office, American University Washington College of Law, United States of America.,
Chanté Lasco, Jurisprudence Collections Coordinator, Gender and International Criminal Law Project
An estimated 20,000 girls and women and an unknown number of men and boys were victims of sexual violence during the war in the former Yugoslavia. This sexual violence took many forms and occurred in many different contexts: in victims ‘own homes when soldiers came to the door; in perpetrators’ homes, with victims sometimes being held for months as sexual slaves; and in detention centres and police stations in the context of interrogations and imprisonment. Since 1993, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) has prosecuted some of these violations, along with other serious war crimes, crimes against humanity and acts of genocide. Yet only a fraction of these crimes – including the widespread sexual and gender-based violence (SGV) that occurred during the war – have been addressed by the ICTY. In light of the tribunal's mandate to complete its work within a limited timeframe, since 2003, the ICTY has focused on the prosecution ‘of the most senior leaders suspected of being most responsible for crimes within the ICTY's jurisdiction and transferr[ed] cases involving those who may not bear this level of responsibility to competent national jurisdictions‘, meaning the vast majority of serious crimes that occurred during the war remain to be addressed by domestic criminal justice systems in the former Yugoslavia, including in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Although an internationally supported special War Crimes Section was established over a decade ago within the national judicial system of the BiH to deal with such cases, a significant backlog remains, in particular with respect to cases involving SGV. This chapter explores the issues faced by justice system actors trying these cases. While some of the challenges relate to evidentiary difficulties, others stem from the withdrawal of international support of the War Crimes Section, rendering accountability efforts vulnerable to attack by domestic actors opposed to such efforts.
At the meeting held at Leiden on July 13, 1928, the Union approved the recommendation of Commission 3 to adopt new boundaries for the constellations north of 12°·5 south declination, these boundaries being, in each case, hour circles or parallels of declination. The Union also approved of a grant to cover the cost of publishing an atlas showing these new boundaries. The boundaries were defined by Mr Delporte of the Uccle Observatory from whom this proposal originally came. Mr Delporte’s boundaries were carefully examined at Yale Observatory in order to make sure that no variable stars would have their designations changed, and that a minimum of stars having Baeyer or Flamsteed designations would be moved to other constellations. After making a few minor alterations on these accounts, Mr Delporte sent his manuscript to the General Secretary, under whose supervision the Cambridge University Press published, in 1930, a volume entitled, Délimitation Scientifique des Constellations. At the suggestion of the present writer this volume extends not merely to 12°·5 south declination, but from pole to pole. Gould had, for the most part, defined the southern constellations by hour circles and parallels; in the few cases where this had not been done, Mr Delporte revised the boundaries accordingly.
During the past four years the most important events in meteoric astronomy have been the good showers of the Leonids in 1930 and 1931. When these observations are added to the predictions based on computations of the perturbations, there is good reason to hope for an even better shower in 1932, perhaps rivalling that of 1866. As to the study of meteors in general, there has been an increasing revival of interest. Meteor Notes are now regular features of many scientific journals. Never before have so many people been working in this branch of science. A very brief outline of such activities follows.
The Commission formed a Sub-Commission on Zodiacal Light, presided over by Prof. Issei Yamamoto. The constitution of a sub-commission on the light of the night sky and kindred phenomena was proposed, but left in abeyance, pending the Stockholm Meeting. Dr Jean Dufay kindly consented to write, at the president’s request, a paper on the present state of the problem of the light of the night sky, which is printed with this Report.
The past few years have witnessed a great increase in the amount of work done on meteors and in the number of observers. At several observatories programmes of work have been undertaken in the hope of solving specific problems. Several countries now have flourishing meteor societies, or sections of larger astronomical societies, devoted to this field. To solve the problems that have arisen the help of other scientists, especially in physics, geology, and meteorology, has been enlisted to the mutual benefit of all. Historical research, particularly in Asia, has added much to our knowledge of meteor showers for the past thousand or more years.
At the Paris meeting in 1935 the following resolutions of Commission 3 were adopted by the Union:
1.Que la liste préliminaire de notations préparée par le Président de la Commission soit, après certaines modifications, imprimée dans les Transactions de l’Union à titre de liste recommandée provisoirement, et que les astronomes intéressés à la question soient invités a adresser au Président de la Commission les changements qu’ils y suggéreraient.
2.Que l’Union donne son approbation à la publication d’un complément mentionnant les changements et additions à la liste des Observatoires et des Astronomes publiée en 1931, sous les auspices de l’Union, par l’Observatoire Royal d’Uccle.
3.Que l’Union consacre, si possible, une somme n’excédant pas cinq cents francs or, à aider la publication de ce complément.
3.The provisional list of notations was printed, as an appendix to the report of Commission 3, Trans. I.A.U. 5, 18, 1935. A number of astronomers communicated to the President of the Commission suggestions of changes. On the basis of these suggestions a corrected list of notations was prepared.
3.Reprints of this list were circulated to the various observatories and suggestions of changes invited. In response to this a number of suggestions were received.
At the Cambridge meeting in 1932 the following resolutions of Commission 3 were adopted by the Union:
1.Que l’équinoxe de 1900.0 soit adopté pour tous catalogues qui ne sont pas catalogues de précision et que quand on désirera plus tard de changer l’équinoxe celui de 2000.0 soit adopté.
2.Que les abréviations (à 4 lettres) des noms des astérismes qui se trouvent dans le Catalogue of Bright Stars (Schlesinger) soient approuvées à l’exception de cinq astérismes qui seront représentés par Arie, Cane, Dlph, Tria, Tr Au (v. Trans. LA.U. 4, 221, 1932).
3.Que la Commission favorise l’établissement d’une notation uniforme dans l’astronomie, à moins qu’il n’y ait pas de conflit avec de notations semblables dans les sciences alliées.
With the publication of the volume Délimitation Scientifique des Constellations and the Atlas Céleste, and the adoption of standard sets of three-letter abbreviations (Rome 1922) and four-letter abbreviations (Cambridge 1932) for the constellations, important work was brought to a close. The main task now before Commission 3 appears to be the working out and publication of a set of notations covering the whole field of astronomy.
In the Iphigeneia at Aulis role and role inversion are paramount concerns. Indeed it could be contended that in this play we find Euripides' clearest and best defined account of human (and divine) variability. Agamemnon, Menelaos, Achilleus, Iphigeneia, and even, in the final analysis, Artemis, all take positions and attitudes diametrically opposed to those initially adopted. Moreover, the basic thrust behind these movements in position and attitude is the same for each of these characters. All are concerned, in one way or another, with the saving or destruction of Iphigeneia, a situation which most emphatically includes Iphigeneia herself. For on the one hand she wildly supplicates to be saved, while on the other she gladly offers her body to the blade. In addition, Iphigeneia plays a crucial role in greater destructions. If she is destroyed by Agamemnon's and the army's actions, then Greece is destroyed in turn by her (Agamemnon's and the Greeks' final triumph is a ‘Pyrrhic’ victory at best), a situation made all the more ironic by her affected stance of saviour to the fatherland. In Iphigeneia's case, however, the discrepancy between intention and the consequences of action is innocent enough. The play gives no hint that she is at all aware of the irony implicit in her actions. But such lack of awareness is not postulated with regard to Agamemnon, Menelaos and Achilleus. The duplicities and hypocrisies of these three have been the subject of much analysis, and it is at least a critical commonplace to observe that they are characterised in a way more reminiscent of the sour end of everyday life than of the due proprieties associated with heroic, or Homeric, behaviour.
To examine the characteristics of congenital heart disease patients hospitalised with respiratory syncytial virus infection after prophylaxis and determine the associated comorbidities and the incidence of breakthrough respiratory syncytial virus infections.
This is a retrospective, single-centre study that was conducted over a period of 7 years. Respiratory syncytial virus infection was identified by classification codes and confirmed by virological tests. Data on baseline demographics, cardiac anomalies, other underlying disease, criteria for hospitalisation, type of respiratory illness and management, complications, and palivizumab prophylaxis were analysed by standard descriptive methods and comparative statistics.
A total of 30 patients were enrolled. The majority were ≤2 years (n = 24). The mean admission age was 15.1 months (standard deviation = 18.3). In all, 90% were acyanotic, 40% had haemodynamically significant disease, and 60% had ≥1 underlying medical illness. Patients were admitted with: respiratory distress (86.7%), hypoxaemia (66.7%), fever (60%), inability to maintain oral intake (36.7%), and apnoea (16.7%). More than 50% required mechanical ventilation and intensive care with a median stay of 11 days (range: 1–43); the length of hospital stay for all children was 10 days (range: 1–65). Complications included: concurrent bacterial sepsis (20%), electrolyte abnormalities (16.7%), and worsening pulmonary hypertension (13.3%). Of 10 infants ≤2 years with haemodynamically significant heart disease, four had received prophylaxis. There was one death, which was attributed to respiratory syncytial virus infection.
Overall, 185 infants ≤2 years with haemodynamically significant cardiac disease received prophylaxis. In all, six qualifying infants missed immunisation and were hospitalised. Breakthrough respiratory syncytial virus infections occurred in 2.2%, demonstrating good efficacy of palivizumab in this population compared with the original, multi-centre, randomised trial.
Chlorine-36 has been identified as a potential source of radiological risk
in the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The radioisotope 36Cl
(t1/2 = 3 × 1O5 a) is produced by neutron
activation of Cl impurities in UO2 fuel. The total average Cl
impurity level in four unirradiated CANDU UO2 fuel samples was
2.3 ± 1.1 ppm. ORIGEN-S calculations using a 5 ppm Cl impurity in a CANDU
fuel resulted in a 36Cl activity comparable to the activity of
129I and 14C produced in the fuel thus requiring
36Cl to be considered in disposal risk assessments. The
“instant release” of 36Cl from the gap and grain boundary regions
of the fuel to solution was measured by leaching both clad fuel and fuel
samples crushed to grain-sized particles. The 36Cl concentration
was measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The 36Cl releases
from fuel samples taken from 8 different fuel bundles ranged from 0.5% to
20.4% of the total 3 Cl inventory over a leaching period of 32
days. The 36Cl released was found to correlate with the stable Xe
gas release, the fuel burnup and the linear power rating (LPR). For a
typical CANDU fuel with an LPR of -42 kW/m, the “instant release” of
36Cl would be about 5% of the total inventory.
Preschoolers with spina bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing (TD) children on tasks tapping mathematical knowledge at 36 months (n = 102) and 60 months of age (n = 98). The group with SB had difficulty compared to TD peers on all mathematical tasks except for transformation on quantities in the subitizable range. At 36 months, vocabulary knowledge, visual–spatial, and fine motor abilities predicted achievement on a measure of informal math knowledge in both groups. At 60 months of age, phonological awareness, visual–spatial ability, and fine motor skill were uniquely and differentially related to counting knowledge, oral counting, object-based arithmetic skills, and quantitative concepts. Importantly, the patterns of association between these predictors and mathematical performance were similar across the groups. A novel finding is that fine motor skill uniquely predicted object-based arithmetic abilities in both groups, suggesting developmental continuity in the neurocognitive correlates of early object-based and later symbolic arithmetic problem solving. Models combining 36-month mathematical ability and these language-based, visual–spatial, and fine motor abilities at 60 months accounted for considerable variance on 60-month informal mathematical outcomes. Results are discussed with reference to models of mathematical development and early identification of risk in preschoolers with neurodevelopmental disorder. (JINS, 2011, 17, 431–444)
Feasibility of 4H-SiC epitaxy on SiCOI substrates has been demonstrated, with high quality of obtained layers. Power Schottky diodes were designed and fabricated on these new structures, and exhibited very interesting electrical performance, particularly in reverse mode, with Vbr ∼ 1000 V. This technology is very promising for the realization of monolithic SiC power systems.
Al-Ti alloys with 72 wt% Al were employed for the realisation of ohmic contacts on 4×1019 cm-3 p-type ion implanted 4H- and 6H-SiC samples. Contact resistivity characterisations by TLM measurements were done at wafer level in the temperature range 28–290°C. Analysis of the TLM measurements took into account current crowding at the metal pads. More than half of the evaluated contact resistivity reached the minimum value detectable by the used TLM devices, that was slightly higher than 1×10-6 Ωcm2. Above this limit value, contact resistivity decreased for increasing temperature and was spread over a few decades. The maximum contact resistivity at 28°C was 2×10-4 Ωcm2, which changed to 5×10-6 Ωcm2 at 290°C. The thermal behaviour of these TLM structures featured thermionic-field emission conduction.
While the majority of theories developed to describe the dynamics of estuarine circulation are devoted to the study of along-channel flows at both tidal (Friedrichs and Aubrey, 1988) and subtidal frequencies (Pritchard, 1956; Hansen and Rattray, 1966; Geyer et al., 2000; MacCready, 2004), in recent years numerous studies have concentrated on secondary flows and their importance in the along-channel dynamics (Lerczak and Geyer, 2004) and along-channel dispersion (Smith, 1977, 1978; Geyer et al., 2008). While detailed theoretical work by Smith (1977) preceded these more recent studies by several decades, the recent modeling and observational studies discussed here have more clearly elucidated the complex interplay between lateral mixing, along-channel dynamics and dispersion. These studies have also emphasized the importance of the pioneering work by Ronald Smith (1977), who was awarded the BH Ketchum award in 1996 for this seminal work. Thus, in addition to the recent work described in detail in this chapter, the reader is encouraged to study the work of Smith (1977, 1978).
Secondary flows are defined by flow that is normal to the main along-channel flow. For natural flows the directionality of this may be defined by flows normal to channel orientation. This is often somewhat ambiguous, so in practice the “cross-channel direction” is usually defined by either principal component analysis or tidal ellipse analysis of current meter data. Typically, the strength of secondary flows is <10% of the strength of along-channel flows.