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Neospora caninum is a commonly diagnosed cause of reproductive losses in farmed ruminants worldwide. This study examined 495 and 308 samples (brain, heart and placenta) which were collected from 455 and 119 aborted cattle and sheep fetuses, respectively. DNA was extracted and a nested Neospora ITS1 PCR was performed on all samples. The results showed that for bovine fetuses 79/449 brain [17.6% (14.2–21.4)], 7/25 heart [28.0% (12.1–49.4)] and 5/21 placenta [23.8% (8.2–47.2)] were PCR positive for the presence of Neospora DNA. Overall 82/455 [18.0% (14.6–21.7)] of the bovine fetuses tested positive for the presence of N. caninum DNA in at least one sample. None (0/308) of the ovine fetal samples tested positive for the presence of Neospora DNA in any of the tissues tested. The results show that N. caninum was associated with fetal losses in cattle (distributed across South-West Scotland), compared to sheep in the same geographical areas where no parasite DNA was found. Neospora is well distributed amongst cattle in South-West Scotland and is the potential cause of serious economic losses to the Scottish cattle farming community; however, it does not appear to be a problem amongst the Scottish sheep flocks.
B.S. Chimni's study of customary international law (CIL) is a review of its role both as a supporter of the existing global capitalist order and as a potential instrument to challenge that order in favor of a postmodern deliberative reasoning as the shaper of a new CIL. It has been my view, since the The Decay of International Law? in 1986, that general customary international law is not an intelligible concept and not actually used in practice to demonstrate empirically the existence of any rule of law. I follow Hans Morgenthau, who wrote in 1940 in the American Journal of International Law that the manner in which the International Court of Justice (ICJ) uses this concept is to decide what it likes and call it customary law. I reiterated this view in my review of the ICJ in the first edition of my Philosophy of International Law in 2007. While Chimni quotes my writings on general custom frequently and very positively in his article, this is always to support a progressive customary law and never to do what I would propose, which is to make a complete break with CIL in favor of an independent approach to the problems it is supposed to answer.
Background: We investigated motor function associations with age, gender, and D4Z4 fragment size among participants with infantile FSHD. Methods: We collected standardized motor assessments including goniometry, manual muscle testing (MMT), quantitative muscle testing (QMT), and FSHD clinical severity scores (CSS) at 12 CINRG sites. To measure associations, we used linear regression models adjusted for age at enrollment, onset of weakness, gender, and D4Z4 repeats. Results: 53 participants (59% female, mean age 23.1±14.6 years) were enrolled. Weakness was most pronounced at the shoulder girdle and rectus abdominis (median MMT 30-38% of normal). Older enrollment age was associated with greater CSS (p=0.005) and reduced range of motion in shoulder abduction, shoulder flexion, elbow flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion (all p<0.01). Females and participants with larger D4Z4 repeats had milder shoulder/arm weakness and lesser disease severity (all p<0.05). Increased age at onset of facial weakness was significantly associated with greater total muscle strength, as measured by QMT and MMT (both p=0.002). Conclusions: We confirm the descending pattern of muscle involvement and milder disease severity in females or those with larger D4Z4 repeats. Furthermore, earlier age at onset of facial weakness was associated with greater muscle weakness. Future longitudinal assessments will describe rates of disease progression in this population.
Les premiers mots de ce Rapport seront un souvenir ému à la mémoire de notre regretté Président, le Général Ferrie, brutalement arraché, en pleine activité physique et intellectuelle, au respect et à l’affection de tous, le 16 février 1932. Il fut l’instigateur et l’animateur des travaux auxquels se consacre notre Commission. Nous ne saurions lui rendre de plus bel hommage—celui-là même qu’il eut souhaité sans doute—qu’en nous attachant à poursuivre, dans la voie qu’il avait tracée en 1926 et qu’il avait commencé de prolonger en vue des opérations de 1933, la mise au point d’une entreprise de haute portée scientifique et qui était au tout premier plan de ses préoccupations.
The economic torts were developed to regulate excessive competitive practice. They had the limited function of stretching existing civil liability where a defendant deliberately inflicted economic harm on a claimant, through the use of an intermediary. However, claimants seek to expand the function of the unlawful means and conspiracy torts so that they can fill “gaps” in existing tort liability, to regulate commercial misbehaviour more generally. In light of this phenomenon, the aim of this article is to analyse the modern approach to these torts in the English, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand courts.
The chapter takes as its starting point Pieter Kooijman's critique of Vattel's thinning out of the concept of authority in international law, one which attaches to the idea of state equality the possibility for each state to insist upon its own standards to the exclusion of any objective standards in the conduct of international relations. The chapter traces Vattel's contextual background in major Enlightenment shifts which set up a pernicious triad of thinkers such as Mandeville, Smith and de Sade. These thinkers make of post-Enlightenment economic and social relations a struggle of Master and Slave, most easily and clearly depicted in feminist studies, but also finding expression in imperialist relations and in particular, the unequal relations between the West and China, with the continuing inconclusive debate about unequal treaties. The chapter uses close study of a possible ‘anti-feminist’ novel, and feminist critique thereof, as well as a fairly extensive critique of the place of China in the recent history of international law, to argue that the present return of China to the position of a world power able to challenge the global system, could auger ill for post-Vattelian international law. Feminist critique is used to show that the post-Enlightenment ethical-cultural resources of international law are not equal to offering a country such as China more than a ‘masculine’ resort to its own self-strengthening. A search for alternatives ways to constructive dialogue are imperative, but, as Kooijmans shows, after Vattel the task of the international lawyer to contribute effectively is immeasurably disadvantaged.
Staying socially engaged is known to improve health and longevity in older people. As the population ages, maintaining levels of social engagement among older people becomes increasingly important. Nevertheless, advancing age brings with it many challenges to social engagement, especially in rural areas. A three-year Australian Research Council Linkage Project sought to improve understandings of age-related triggers to social disengagement in six Tasmanian communities that are representative of rural Australian experience, and thus of wider salience. A collaboration between academics and health and social professionals, the project investigated design solutions for service frameworks that may be useful before ageing individuals become isolated and dependent, and that may support those individuals to actively contribute to and benefit from social life. The purpose of this paper is to report on perspectives about diminishing levels of social engagement held by older rural participants and service providers, and to advance a number of key insights on ways in which to nurture social engagement and improve the experience of ageing.
Martin Luther argued that the Hebrew Bible's Song of Songs was “an encomium of the political order,” a praise and thanksgiving to God for the gift of temporal government. Luther's political interpretation of this book was unique in his age, and remains so in the history of biblical commentary. This paper offers an account of Luther's peculiar interpretation, as well as its place in his interpretation of the Bible and in the history of biblical commentary, by arguing that it exhibits the foundational idea of his political thought that secular authority is a precious gift from God, and that the Song of Songs, as a praise of conjugal love, provides for political authority a fitting biblical encomium.
Marian Carty, Course Leader for the Postgraduate Certificate of Education in Modern Foreign Languages at the University of Cumbria's London site.,
Colin Christie, Senior Lecturer at the University of Cumbria's London site.,
Danièle Flament-Boistrancourt, Professor at the University Paris Ouest-Nanterre-La Défense.,
Marc Klein, Senior Lecturer in Phonology at the University Paris Ouest-Nanterre-La Défense.,
Hazel Crichton, Lecturer in Modern Languages in the Department of Pedagogy, Policy and Practice at the University of Glasgow.,
Brian Templeton, Reader in Teaching and Assessing Modern Languages, working in the Faculty of Education at the University of Glasgow.
The Franco-English double degree master's FLE (Français Langue Etrangère)/PGCE (Postgraduate Certificate in Education) was set up in 2005. It originated from the double degree maîtrise FLE/PGCE created in 1992. Around 2002, the maîtrise FLE/PGCE degree evolved into a master's FLE/PGCE involving 10 partners: nine French universities (Paris 8, Paris 5, Paris Ouest-Nanterre-La Défense, Pau, Lyon 2, Aix-Marseille, Le Mans, Nancy and Strasbourg) and one English university (the University of Cumbria, UoC, on three sites – Lancaster, Carlisle and Greenwich). In 2007, a Scottish partner joined the existing consortium: the University of Glasgow. A Franco-Scottish double diploma master's FLE/PGDE (Postgraduate Diploma in Education) is now offered to the master's FLE students of the French universities, who therefore have the option of two different routes (an English PGCE or a Scottish PGDE) to become qualified teachers of modern foreign languages (MFL). These Franco-British double diplomas are undertaken mainly by French graduates (a cohort of about 30 every year) but they are also open to British graduates.
The first part of the chapter is devoted to the setting up of the Franco-English diploma and the way it is presently working at the UoC, well known for its distinctive methodology for teaching foreign languages. The second part focuses on the University of Nanterre, which joined the consortium in 2004 and which provided in 2009/10 around 60 per cent of the entire French cohort (16 students out of 28 on the Greenwich site of the UoC). The number of students from Nanterre increased from 5 in 2005/06 to 19 in 2009/10. An analysis of the reasons for Nanterre's ‘taking off’ will be undertaken. The third part of the chapter is devoted to the Franco-Scottish master's FLE/PGDE, developed with the University of Glasgow. Within the MFL area, the tutors in the Faculty of Education of this university have a lead role in implementing in Scotland the modernisation of the Scottish school curriculum, known as the ‘Curriculum for Excellence’.