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This study investigates the effect of an abstract word training paradigm initially developed to treat lexical retrieval deficits in patients with aphasia on second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. Three English–Spanish L2 learners (Experiment 1) and 10 Spanish–English L2 learners (Experiment 3) were trained on 15 abstract words within a context-category (e.g., restaurant) using a five-step training paradigm based on semantic feature analysis. In addition, 7 English–Spanish L2 learners were trained on either abstract or concrete words within a context-category (Experiment 2). Across all experiments, the majority of participants trained on abstract words showed improved production of the trained abstract words, as measured by a word generation task, as well as improvement on untrained concrete words within the same context-category (i.e., generalization). Participants trained on concrete words (Experiment 2) exhibited much smaller word production gains and no generalization to abstract words. These results parallel previous findings from aphasia research and suggest that this training paradigm can successfully be extended to L2 learning contexts, where it has the potential to be a useful tool in vocabulary instruction. We discuss the findings in terms of models of spreading activation and the underlying conceptual representations of abstract and concrete words in the L2 lexicon.
Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of vector-borne disease (VBD) in pets is one cornerstone of companion animal practices. Veterinarians are facing new challenges associated with the emergence, reemergence, and rising incidence of VBD, including heartworm disease, Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis. Increases in the observed prevalence of these diseases have been attributed to a multitude of factors, including diagnostic tests with improved sensitivity, expanded annual testing practices, climatologic and ecological changes enhancing vector survival and expansion, emergence or recognition of novel pathogens, and increased movement of pets as travel companions. Veterinarians have the additional responsibility of providing information about zoonotic pathogen transmission from pets, especially to vulnerable human populations: the immunocompromised, children, and the elderly. Hindering efforts to protect pets and people is the dynamic and ever-changing nature of VBD prevalence and distribution. To address this deficit in understanding, the Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) began efforts to annually forecast VBD prevalence in 2011. These forecasts provide veterinarians and pet owners with expected disease prevalence in advance of potential changes. This review summarizes the fidelity of VBD forecasts and illustrates the practical use of CAPC pathogen prevalence maps and forecast data in the practice of veterinary medicine and client education.
Nicotine replacement therapy sampling (NRTS) refers to providing all smokers, regardless of interest in quitting, with free samples of over-the-counter NRT. NRTS has been shown to increase quit attempts and abstinence.
We conducted a pilot trial with a goal to establish the feasibility and acceptability of NRTS in a dental clinic, where providing free samples is routine and universal.
Participants (N = 30) completed a baseline survey and were randomized to receive or not receive a 2-week supply of NRT samples (14 mg patches and 4 mg lozenges) in a 3:1 ratio.
We enrolled 30 of 50 potentially eligible patients, of whom 26 completed a 4-week follow-up survey. At follow-up, 61% of the NRT group reported use of the samples and 26% said they used more NRT obtained on their own. In the No NRT group, only one patient reported using NRT. No patients reported past week abstinence, but 43% of the NRT group vs. 29% of the No NRT group reported making a quit attempt lasting longer than 24 h.
The pattern of results suggests that conducting a larger trial would be feasible and that the NRTS intervention was acceptable to dental patients.
For over a decade a transdiagnostic clinical staging framework for youth with anxiety, mood and psychotic disorders (linked with measurement of multidimensional outcomes), has been utilised in over 8,000 young people presenting to the enhanced primary (headspace) and secondary care clinics of the Brain and Mind Centre of the University of Sydney. This framework has been evaluated alongside a broad range of other clinical, neurobiological, neuropsychological, brain imaging, circadian, metabolic, longitudinal cohort and controlled intervention studies. This has led to specific tests of its concurrent, discriminant and predictive validity. These extensive data provide strong preliminary evidence that: i) varying stages of illness are associated with predicted differences in a range of independent and objectively measured neuropsychological and other biomarkers (both cross-sectionally and longitudinally); and, ii) that earlier stages of illness progress at variable rates to later and more severe or persistent disorders. Importantly, approximately 15-20% of those young people classed as stage 1b or ‘attenuated’ syndromes at presentation progress to more severe or persistent disorders. Consequently, this cohort should be the focus of active secondary prevention trials. In clinical practice, we are moving to combine the staging framework with likely pathophysiological paths (e.g. neurodevelopmental-psychotic, anxiety-depression, circadian-bipolar) to underpin enhanced treatment selection.
Despite the critical role of working memory (WM) in neuropsychiatric conditions, there remains a dearth of available WM-targeted interventions. Gamma and theta oscillations as measured with electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) reflect the neural underpinnings of WM. The WM processes that fluctuate in conjunction with WM demands are closely correlated with WM test performance, and their EEG signatures are abnormal in several clinical populations. Novel interventions such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have been shown to modulate these oscillations and subsequently improve WM performance and clinical symptoms. Systematically identifying pathological WM-related gamma/theta oscillatory patterns with EEG/MEG and developing ways to target them with interventions such as TMS is an active area of clinical research. Results hold promise for enhancing the outcomes of our patients with WM deficits and for moving the field of clinical neuropsychology towards a mechanism-based approach. (JINS, 2019, XX, XXX–XXX)
Megan M. Carpenter, Megan Carpenter is Dean of the University of New Hampshire School of Law. Her research interests include intellectual property, with a particular focus on entrepreneurship, branding, and the arts.
GREAT TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS create a universe. The invention of the escalator was, literally, groundbreaking. It expanded our concept of space and time— and, accordingly, redefined the possibilities for commerce.
For those within the intellectual property system, the escalator is famous for its association with the phenomenon of “trademark genericide.” Trademark genericide occurs when trademarks become so famous that they cease to identify the source of goods or services in the minds of consumers and instead become names for the goods themselves. “Escalator” is right up there with “aspirin,” “cellophane,” and “kitty litter” as an example of a brand that morphed into its product. And it's true that the intellectual property story of the escalator is, in part, how Charles Seeberger's brand of moving staircases grew to symbolize the thing itself. But the larger story is about the cultural phenomenon, an invention that transformed the way we interact with the world. How people move. How sales are made. How the built world is constructed. Before the escalator was invented, commerce and transportation were largely one-dimensional. Stairs and elevators were for the committed and purposeful, their limitations constraining vertical expansion, above and below ground. Stairs require patience and effort. Elevators have a unique, precise, and tightly constrained mission. The invention of the escalator changed everything: suddenly, a constant flow of people could ascend into the air, or descend to the depths. The escalator modified architecture itself, creating fluid transitions into spaces above and below. Now, in commerce and transportation, neither the sky nor the ground would be the limit.
The first conceptual articulation of an escalator was “An Improvement in Stairs,” described in an 1859 US patent issued to Nathan Ames. Ames was an inventor with several patents, including a railroad switch, aprintingpress, and a combination knife, fork, and spoon. Ames’ patent made claim over an endless belt of steps revolving around three mechanical wheels that could be powered by hand, weights, or steam.
This version of the moving stairway didn't gain much momentum, however, and was never built.
As much as any other site in the nineteenth century, Francophone Lower Canada saw immense waves of popular petitioning, with petitions against British colonial administration attracting tens of thousands of signatures in the 1820s. The petition against Governor Dalhousie of 1827–28 attracted more than 87,000 names, making it one of the largest mass petitions of the Atlantic world on a per-capita scale for its time. We draw upon new archival evidence that shows the force of local organization in the petition mobilization, and combine this with statistical analyses of a new sample of 1,864 names from the anti-Dalhousie signatory list. We conclude that the Lower Canadian petitioning surge stemmed from emergent linguistic nationalism, expectations of parliamentary democracy, and the mobilization and alliance-building efforts of Patriote leaders in the French-Canadian republican movement. As elsewhere in the nineteenth-century Atlantic, the anti-Dalhousie effort shows social movements harnessing petitions to recruit, mobilize, and build cross-cultural alliances.
A new protocol has been devised for determining elastic properties of natural biocomposites in the form of bivalve shells under wet and dry conditions. Four-point bending on shell slices of Mytilus edulis, Ensis siliqua, and Pecten maximus give generally lower and more reliable values of Young’s modulus, E, than those in the literature from three-point bending, due to the more even distribution of strain. Finite element analysis of the prismatic microstructure of Pinna nobilis, obtained by X-ray tomography, shows that values of E ≈ 20 GPa can be understood in terms of the real microstructure containing a small proportion of organic matrix phase with E ≈ 1 GPa and a dominant proportion of calcite with E ≈ 90 GPa. Higher values of E obtained by nanoindentation give results which are biased toward the properties of the carbonate phase rather than of the biocomposite as a whole.
Near infrared (NIR) optical imaging has demonstrated significant potential as an effective modality for cancer molecular imaging. Among various NIR probes currently under investigation, upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs) possess great promise due to their anti-Stokes emission and sequential photon absorption which result in superior detection sensitivity and a simple imaging setup, respectively. Here we investigated the utility of this imaging modality to detect tumor cells expressing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) using affibody functionalized nanophosphors and a custom built imaging system. Initially, aqueous dispersible NaYF4: Tm+3, Yb+3 UCNPs were synthesized and their photophysical properties were characterized. Then, their luminescence response as a function of concentration and their depth resolving capability in a tissue-simulating phantom were examined. Finally, we demonstrated the use of bioconjugated UCNPs for imaging EGFR-expressing tumors both in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggests that NIR imaging with UCNPs may be useful for noninvasive imaging of tumors.
Every story, they say, is the Iliad or the Odyssey – that is, a departure or a homecoming. Fairy tales often, therefore, tell of quests; stories as different as Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Anne Tyler's Accidental Tourist (1985) recount journeys; and the very notion of narrative implies movement from a beginning to an end, mirroring the dynamics of a trip. In short, fiction has always been tied to travel.
The word ‘fiction’ typically refers to literature in the form of prose, stories either long or short that recount ‘imaginary events and people’ (Concise Oxford English Dictionary). More generally it evokes all things invented or untruthful. Thus, a politician's claims may be decried by opponents as ‘pure fiction’ less pejoratively the term might apply to a child's imaginary friend. As Williams reminds us in the original Keywords (2014 ), the Latin fingere, from which the term ‘fiction’ was born, meant ‘to form’ or ‘to contrive’, referring specifically to the fashioning of clay. Not surprisingly, fingere also gave rise to the words ‘feign’ and ‘figment’, terms which underscore the contributions to fiction of both artifice and imagination.
This genealogy introduces a tension among those studying travel writing: some readers exclude imaginary journeys from the genre. For them Gulliver's Travels (1726) or Voltaire's Candide (1759) fail to qualify as travel literature because they are not based on the actual peregrinations of their authors. But the distinction is messy. Michael Kowalewski, Charles Forsdick, Patrick Holland and Graham Huggan have all commented on the indeterminate boundaries of travel writing. The traditional emphasis on lived experience, typically resulting in first-person narratives, aligns the genre more closely with other supposedly ‘non-fiction’ forms such as memoir and autobiography. However, this grounding in personal experience merely displaces the problem. As discussed by Philippe Lejeune (1989) and others, narratives of personal experience often project an aura of authenticity at the same time that they draw on the toolkit of fiction. And although Peter Hulme and Russell McDougal (2007) speak of the scientific inclinations of some travel literature, most readers acknowledge that even documentary-style work follows the principles of narrative. After all, ‘objective’ representations still crop experience like a photograph in order to highlight or dramatize events.
The term itself is slippery. Originally denoting moisture, ‘humour’ came to describe bodily fluids thought to influence temper and disposition, eventually referring to mood itself, good or ill. Only later did the word develop the sense of that which lifts the spirits, inducing lightness and levity – specifically all things comical. There are three main theories about what makes us laugh. The first, coming from Aristotle and supported later by Thomas Hobbes (1998 ) and Charles Baudelaire (1956 ), focuses on the notion of power. It suggests that laughter derives from our sudden recognition of superiority (usually our own), especially when this difference is presented with grotesque exaggeration. Baudelaire also insisted on the function of surprise, which Henri Bergson (1911 ) further developed in his landmark study on laughter, referring to the general category of incongruity: in slapstick humour, for example, we see humans acting like dumb animals or simple machines, and the strangeness of this combination is cause for mirth. Finally, Freud (1960 ) pointed to the value of humour as a form of relief: jokes or comical stories provide an opportunity for expressing sentiments that might otherwise be repressed or painful, or too transgressive for normal discourse. In this last case, humour masks seriousness. Many commentators have noted that these functions can operate simultaneously for the production of humour.
Less commented on are the natural connections between humour and travel writing. However, encounters with cultural difference are heavy with the ingredients for comedy: they often place the travelling narrator in a position of extreme inferiority (beleaguered by fatigue, foreign language and cultural misunderstanding); they reveal practices and behaviours so surprising that they may seem non-human; they reveal new boundaries for what is considered taboo or sacred, bringing difficult subjects suddenly into sharp relief.
The introduction of humour into travel writing is not a modern invention, but its presence has become commonplace over time. It occurred with special density in fictional narratives that spoofed the genre. In The Persian Letters (1721), for example, Montesquieu managed to skewer French dress, habits, politics and religion by describing how a visitor from Isfahan would perceive French society. In more ‘authentic’ narratives, there is evidence of humour too. In Bougainville's description of Tahiti (in Voyage autour du Monde, 1771), the author related most experiences with the gravity of a scientific report, but humour sometimes cropped up.
This volume celebrates forty years of Medieval English Theatre. For those who were there at the first meeting in Lancaster in 1979 ‘to discuss the pageant waggon’, this thought is both alarming and exhilarating. In the intervening decades we have travelled all over the United Kingdom, from Southampton to Edinburgh; and next year we go to Switzerland to celebrate our fortieth birthday, on what will be, by the quirk of mathematics that means that you have your first birthday a year after you were born, our forty-first meeting.
Our Fortieth Meeting on ‘Performance and its Urban Context’ was in Sheffield, ably hosted at the Humanities Research Institute by Charlotte Steenbrugge and her team. It was a packed day, with an interesting variety of approaches. Starting with York's Corpus Christi Play, Eleanor Bloomfield looked at the Passion sequence and its relation to the Mass; Sian Witherden spoke on the exploitation of the sense of touch, especially the implications of ‘stepping in Christ's footsteps’ for acts of virtual and vicarious pilgrimage; and Meg Twycross looked at ‘The Sun in York’ (see below). The next session considered the relationship between religious establishments and the city: Aurélie Blanc on the efforts made by the Abbess of Barking to instruct and involve the local community through drama; Olivia Robinson on the political implications of changes to the processional route at Huy in Belgium, and how the relationship of the modern nuns to their own theatrical performances casts light on that of their predecessors; and Jason Burg on the dramatic ceremonies of Lincoln (the St Anne's day procession, a possible Ascension play), where the Cathedral and the Guild seem to have worked together. In the afternoon, Daisy Black spoke about the unexpectedly powerful effect of silent characters in the civic plays. Mark Chambers and Gasper Jacovac recounted their discoveries about the theatrical entertainments laid on at Durham and Newcastle for James VI and I in his 1617 tour of the North. Phil Butterworth reminded us of the recalcitrance of material objects by describing the hazards to medieval street theatre from structures which were not supposed to be there.