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Fauré Studies showcases new research from leading scholars in the United States, United Kingdom, and France into this influential French composer of the fin de siècle. This book features interpretations of individual works and musical analyses, as well as studies of compositional pedagogy, social history, and aesthetics. Accessible to a wide range of readers, this volume also provides a valuable overview of Fauré research from the composer's lifetime to the present. As part of Cambridge Composer Studies, Fauré Studies adds momentum to new research into this major composer, which includes recently launched critical editions of his music.
It is unknown if time-restricted feeding confers a protective effect on the physical function of older adults. The aim of this study was to assess prolonged nightly fasting in association with performance-based lower-extremity function (LEF) in a large population of community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,226 individuals ≥64 years from the Seniors-ENRICA-II cohort. In 2016-2017, habitual diet was assessed through a validated diet history. Fasting time was classified into the following categories: ≤9, 10-11, and ≥12hours/day, the latter being considered prolonged nightly fasting. Performance-based LEF was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After adjusting for potential confounders, a longer fasting period was associated with a higher likelihood of impaired LEF [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the second and third categories: 2.27 (1.56-3.33) and 2.70 (1.80-4.04), respectively, considering the ≤9 hours/day fasting group as reference; p-trend <0.001]. When assessing each SPPB subtest separately, fasting time showed a significant association with balance impairment (OR for highest vs. lowest fasting time: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.51-4.08; p-trend =0.001) and difficulty to rise from a chair (OR for highest vs. lowest fasting time: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05-2.06; p-trend =0.01). The risk associated with ≥12 h fasting among those with the lowest levels of physical activity was three times higher than among those with ≤9 hours fasting with the same low level of physical activity. Prolonged nightly fasting was associated with a higher likelihood of impaired LEF, balance impairment, and difficulty to rise from a chair in older adults, especially among those with low levels of physical activity.
This paper sheds light on a crucial period of Spanish economic history, analysing changes in intergenerational occupational mobility. We use newly collected empirical evidence from Valencia, a region that followed a path of growth based on agrarian capitalism focused on international markets. We show that occupational mobility improved between 1841 and 1850, but that this situation reversed during the following decades. The opportunities offered to individuals from poorer families quickly disappeared. Put in international perspective, occupational mobility in Valencia was far lower than in other European countries, where both downward and especially upward mobility were considerably higher. By 1870, Valencia had become a polarised society, where the lowest part of the income distribution suffered increasing pauperisation and downward mobility.
Heart transplant after Fontan completion poses a unique surgical challenge. Twenty patients are presented, stressing the technical hints performed in the five anastomoses to match the graft in the recipient.
Data are collected from 20 Fontan patients between 2013 and 2019. Age (13 years), weight (37 kg.), and time interval between Fontan and transplant (7 years) are presented as median. Extracardiac conduit (size 18/20) was implanted in 15 patients, whereas atrio-pulmonary connection was performed in 4 and lateral tunnel in 1. Six patients developed protein-losing enteropathy. Seventeen stents had been previously deployed.
The five anastomoses underwent some changes. Left atrium once, aorta 9 times, superior vena cava 7 times, pulmonary branches 15 times, and inferior vena cava 12 times. Follow-up was complete for a median of 42 months (range 6–84). Two patients died. ECMO was needed in six cases for pulmonary hypertension. Four patients had collateral vessels occluded in the cath lab, and stents were placed in superior vena cava (1) and aorta (1) post-transplant. Protein-losing enteropathy was resolved in five patients. Interestingly, one patient was on a systemic assist device before transplant (Levitronix) and right assistance (ECMO) afterwards.
Transplant in Fontan patients is actually challenging. Hints in every of the five proposed anastomoses must be anticipated, including stents removal. Extra tissue from the donor (innominate vein, aortic arch, and pericardium) is strongly advisable. ECMO for right ventricular dysfunction was needed in nearly one-third of the cases. Overall results can match other transplant cohorts.
While noting the usual scholarly snubbing of ‘excessive’ and ‘insubstantial’ dance tunes, Carlo Caballero explores dance’s significance and popularity – not only with audiences, but also with ‘serious’ composers. Writing about late nineteenth-century French musical culture, Caballero examines a vogue for the sixteenth-century pavane (with reference to examples by Saint-Saëns, Delibes, Fauré, Ravel and Debussy, amongst others), considering how and why the genre of the pavane became emblematic of a constellation of contemporary cultural strains of influence. As Caballero recounts, dance took on new significance during the period, aligned with historical prestige, antique exoticism, the French aristocracy, musical nationalism and modernity itself. Guided by this case history, Caballero reminds us of the cultural embeddedness of both dance and musical practices, and why we need ways of understanding these practices as both socially conditioned and conditioning.
One of the main health-related worries for older adults is becoming dependent. Even healthy older adults may worry about becoming dependent, generating guilt feelings due to the anticipation of future needs that others must solve. The guilt associated with self-perception as a burden has not been studied in older adults, and there is no instrument available to measure these feelings.
To adapt the Self-Perceived Burden Scale (SPBS; Cousineau et al., 2003) for the assessment of feelings of guilt for perceiving oneself as a burden for the family in older adults without explicit functional or cognitive impairment.
Participants were 298 older adults living independently in the community. Participants completed the assessment protocol, which included measures of guilt associated with self-perception as a burden, depressive and anxious symptomatology, self-perceived burden, and sociodemographic information.
Results from exploratory, parallel and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the scale, named Guilt associated with Self-Perception as a Burden Scale (G-SPBS), has a unidimensional structure, explaining 57.04% of the variance of guilt. Good reliability was found (Cronbach’s alpha = .94). The results revealed significant (p < .01) positive associations with depressive and anxious symptomatology.
These findings suggest that the G-SPBS shows good psychometric properties which endorse its use with healthy community older adults. Also, guilt associated with perceiving oneself as a burden seems to be a relevant variable that can contribute to improving our understanding of psychological distress in older adults.
A new species of gopher, Gregorymys mixtecorum n. sp., is described from the Arikareean 1 (early Oligocene) of Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is the sister species of G. veloxikua, which was also recently described from southern Mexico. Both species were collected from sediments of the Chilapa Formation that crop out in northwestern Oaxaca. Gregorymys mixtecorum n. sp. and G. veloxikua show differences in size and proportions that possibly reduced competition for resources, exploiting different microhabitats. Both Mexican species represent the oldest and the most southern records of Gregorymys in North America. The Mexican record of Gregorymys suggests that at least some entoptychine rodents diversified in southern Mexico or Central America, and that Geomyidae has had a wide geographic distribution in North America since the early Oligocene.
With longitudinal executive function (EF) data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study, we investigated three research goals pertaining to key characteristics of EF in non-demented aging: (a) examining variability in EF longitudinal trajectories, (b) establishing trajectory classes, and (c) identifying biomarker predictors discriminating these classes.
We used a trajectory analyses sample (n = 781; M age = 71.42) for the first and second goals and a prediction analyses sample (n = 570; M age = 70.10) for the third goal. Eight neuropsychological EF measures were used as indicators of three EF dimensions: inhibition, updating, and shifting. Data-driven classification analyses were applied to the full trajectory distribution. Machine learning prediction analyses tested 15 predictors from genetic, functional, lifestyle, mobility, and demographic risk domains.
First, we observed: (a) significant variability in EF trajectories over a 40-year band of aging and (b) significantly variable patterns of EF decline. Second, a four-class EF trajectory model was observed, characterized with classes differentiated by an algorithm of level and slope information. Third, the highest group class was discriminated from lowest by several prediction factors: more education, more novel cognitive activity, lower pulse pressure, younger age, faster gait, lower body mass index, and better balance.
First, with longitudinal variability in EF aging, the data-driven approach showed that long-term trajectories can be differentiated into separable classes. Second, prediction analyses discriminated class membership by a combination of multiple biomarkers from demographic, lifestyle, functional, and mobility domains of risk for brain and cognitive aging decline.
We evaluated the effects of fermentation time and acid casein content on the microbial rennet obtained by solid-state fermentation using wheat bran as the carbon source. The experiments used two fermentation times (72 and 96 h), while acid casein content was 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g. Rennet strength from eight enzymatic extracts was measured using pasteurized whole milk. Rennet strength of samples from 72 h of fermentation showed an increase when acid casein content increased. The rennet strength increased at 96 h of fermentation with increasing amount of casein (up to 2.5 g), and then decreased with the largest addition (3.0 g) of casein. Coagulation time for the sample with highest rennet strength was 420 s.
Although legumes are rich in protein and fibre, and low in saturated fat and Na, traditional legume-based recipes include substantial amounts of processed meat, salt and potatoes, which could counteract the potential benefits of legumes. This prospective study aimed to assess the longitudinal association of consumption of different types of legumes, and traditional legume-based recipes, with unhealthy ageing in older adults. Data were taken from 2505 individuals aged ≥60 years from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. Habitual legume consumption was assessed in 2008–2010 with a validated diet history. Unhealthy ageing was measured in the 2013, 2015 and 2017 follow-up waves, with a fifty-two-item multidimensional health deficit accumulation index (DAI) which ranges from 0 (best) to 100 (worst health). The mean age was 68·7 years, with 53·1 % of women. Among study participants, 78·4 % reported consumption of legumes, with a mean intake of 57·9 g/d. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models did not show an association between total legume consumption and the DAI over a 7-year follow-up (non-standardised coefficient for the second and highest v. the lowest tertile of consumption: 0·94 (95 % CI −0·30, 2·17) and 0·18 (95 % CI −1·07, 1·43), respectively; Ptrend = 0·35). Similar results were observed for the 3-year and 5-year follow-ups and, separately, for lentils, beans, chickpeas and traditional legume-based recipes. According to the results obtained, consumption of legumes and traditional legume-based recipes is not associated with unhealthy ageing and can be part of a healthy diet in old age.
This corpus study explores how sound events are communicated in English and Spanish. The aims are to (i) contribute production data for a better understanding of the couplings of meanings and their realizations, (ii) account for typological differences between the languages, and (iii) further the theoretical discussion of how sound is conceptualized through the window of language. We found that, while there are significant differences between the languages with respect to how sound events are communicated, they are similar with respect to what domains the sound descriptions are instantiated in, namely perception, motion, manipulation, emotion-reaction, consumption, and cognition. One striking difference has to do with the conflation of sound for action, e.g., creak, squeak, and sound for motion, e.g., slam, crash. This finding supports the received view of English as a language that may lexicalize manner in those kinds of verbs, while Spanish expresses manner through qualifiers outside the verb. Moreover, both languages employ three different perspectives on the soundscapes: Producer-, Experiencer-, and Phenomenon-based. While English favours the Producer perspective, Spanish features an even distribution between Producer and Experiencer. Phenomenon-based descriptions are relatively few in both languages.
The production of a well-constructed narrative is the culmination of several years of language acquisition and is an important milestone in children's development. There is no current description of narrative development for Catalan speaking children. This study collected elicited narratives in Catalan from 118 children aged 4;0–10;11. Narratives were scored for macrostructure and microstructure. Narrative scores improved with age with maximum performance for macrostructure by 9 years. Children's ability to use micro-structural components of Catalan is variable with some developments continuing beyond 9 years. The results are discussed in relation to theoretical arguments about universal and specific features of narrative development. We conclude by highlighting the usefulness of the new test for future language assessment of children acquiring Catalan.
The development of genotyping platforms with high-density of SNP markers makes possible today a detailed analysis of the variation along the genome. Advances in genomic sequencing techniques have allowed access to more than 80 million SNPs in humans (Auton et al., 2015: 1000 Genomes Project Consortium) and several million in model species (Mackay et al., 2012). In parallel, there has been a great development of statistical methods for the estimation of genetic effects and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). Among the new applications of genomic information is the search and mapping of QTLs, the detection of the selection footprint and genomic selection, methods that we will outline throughout the chapter.
Artificial selection is perhaps the most important application of quantitative genetics, being the main agent of the genetic improvement of plants and animals. Carried out, sometimes inadvertently, from the starts of domestication, artificial selection consists of using as reproducers only the most suitable individuals in relation to a specific objective, generally of interest for human consumption or welfare. Artificial selection is the tool with which most of the increase in the production of domestic animals has been achieved, such as the duplication of milk production in cattle and the four-fold increase of the weight in chickens in the last 50 years (Hill, 2014). But artificial selection is also a basic experimental tool for genetic research (Hill and Caballero, 1992).
The genetic description of a population can be done at three different levels, the locus, the gamete or the individual genotype, by specifying the different variants in each case (allelic, gametic or genotypic) and their respective frequencies. A population of a diploid species is composed of individuals (genotypes) that reproduce by the union of their gametes to form zygotes that will give rise to the individuals of the next generation, hence the interest of a genotypic and gametic description. But genotypes and gametes are sets of alleles, two for each locus in the first case and one in the second, hence the interest of the allelic description.
Consider the simplest case: a biallelic locus A with alleles A and a, therefore, genotypes AA, Aa and aa, and suppose that in a population formed by 100 individuals, the number of those corresponding to each genotype is 40, 50 and 10, respectively (Table 2.1).
As we saw in Chapter 2, natural selection is the main force for the change of allelic frequencies and the driving factor behind the evolution of living beings and their adaptation to the incessant environmental changes. Although there are other evolutionary agents that modify the allelic frequencies, only selection produces changes that promote adaptation. We also indicated that natural selection acts directly on a single character, fitness, and the changes occurred on the different quantitative traits of an individual depend on the genetic correlation between them and fitness. Probably, all quantitative characteristics (and also qualitative ones) are more or less related to fitness, since selection acts at all levels, from the cellular to the population (Endler, 1986). In previous chapters we indicated that some traits, the so-called main components, have a strong relationship with fitness. In fact, the empirical evaluation of this is carried out by its components, mainly viability, fecundity and mating success.