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There is increasing interest in day-to-day affect fluctuations of patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. Few studies have compared repeated assessments of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) across diagnostic groups, and fluctuation patterns were not uniformly defined. The aim of this study is to compare affect fluctuations in patients with a current episode of depressive or anxiety disorder, in remitted patients and in controls, using affect instability as a core concept but also describing other measures of variability and adjusting for possible confounders.
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data were obtained from 365 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety with current (n = 95), remitted (n = 178) or no (n = 92) DSM-IV defined depression/anxiety disorder. For 2 weeks, five times per day, participants filled-out items on PA and NA. Affect instability was calculated as the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD). Tests on group differences in RMSSD, within-person variance, and autocorrelation were performed, controlling for mean affect levels.
Current depression/anxiety patients had the highest affect instability in both PA and NA, followed by remitters and then controls. Instability differences between groups remained significant when controlling for mean affect levels, but differences between current and remitted were no longer significant.
Patients with a current disorder have higher instability of NA and PA than remitted patients and controls. Especially with regard to NA, this could be interpreted as patients with a current disorder being more sensitive to internal and external stressors and having suboptimal affect regulation.
Conceptualisations of ‘food deserts’ (areas lacking healthful food/drink) and ‘food swamps’ (areas overwhelm by less-healthful fare) may be both inaccurate and incomplete. Our objective was to more accurately and completely characterise food/drink availability in urban areas.
Cross-sectional assessment of select healthful and less-healthful food/drink offerings from storefront businesses (stores, restaurants) and non-storefront businesses (street vendors).
Two areas of New York City: the Bronx (higher-poverty, mostly minority) and the Upper East Side (UES; wealthier, predominantly white).
All businesses on 63 street segments in the Bronx (n 662) and on 46 street segments in the UES (n 330).
Greater percentages of businesses offered any, any healthful, and only less-healthful food/drink in the Bronx (42·0 %, 37·5 %, 4·4 %, respectively) than in the UES (30 %, 27·9 %, 2·1 %, respectively). Differences were driven mostly by businesses (e.g. newsstands, gyms, laundromats) not primarily focused on selling food/drink – ‘other storefront businesses’ (OSBs). OSBs accounted for 36·0 % of all food/drink-offering businesses in the Bronx (more numerous than restaurants or so-called ‘food stores’) and 18·2 % in the UES (more numerous than ‘food stores’). Differences also related to street vendors in both the Bronx and the UES. If street vendors and OSBs were not captured, the missed percentages of street segments offering food/drink would be 14·5 % in the Bronx and 21·9 % in the UES.
Of businesses offering food/drink in communities, OSBs and street vendors can represent substantial percentages. Focusing on only ‘food stores’ and restaurants may miss or mischaracterise ‘food deserts’, ‘food swamps’, and food/drink-source disparities between communities.
Evolving conditions at the terminus of Thwaites Glacier will be important in determining the rate of its future sea-level contribution over the coming decades. Here, we use remote-sensing observations to investigate recent changes (2000–2018) in the structure and velocity of Thwaites Glacier and its floating tongue. We show that the main trunk of Thwaites Glacier has accelerated by 38% over this period, while its previously intact floating tongue has transitioned to a weaker mélange of fractured icebergs bounded by sea ice. However, the rate of structural weakening and acceleration was not uniform across the observational period and we identify two periods of rapid acceleration and structural weakening (2006–2012; 2016–2018), separated by a period of deceleration and re-advance of the structurally-intact shear margin boundary (2012–2015). The timing of these accelerations/decelerations strongly suggests a link to variable ocean forcing. The weakened tongue now has some dependency on landfast sea ice for structural integrity and is vulnerable to changes in landfast ice persistency. Future reductions in landfast sea ice could manifest from changes in climate and/or the imminent removal of the B-22A iceberg from the Thwaites embayment. Such changes could have important implications for the integrity of the ice tongue and future glacier discharge.
To examine the rate of monitoring of metabolic syndrome and actual rates of metabolic syndrome in two patient cohorts [clozapine treatment and long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic] who are reviewed on an equally regular basis (1–4 weekly) for administration of treatment.
Clinical and laboratory data are examined on 119 patients treated with clozapine and 116 patients treated with LAI antipsychotic medications to determine the rates of metabolic syndrome and evidence of monitoring for metabolic syndrome in the previous 6 months. Individuals with insufficient data from these cohorts were invited to attend for metabolic screening to determine actual rates of metabolic syndrome in these two cohorts of patients.
All metabolic parameters were monitored to a significantly greater extent in the clozapine cohort (>90%), compared to those treated with LAI antipsychotic medications (<50%) (blood pressure, weight, lipid and glucose levels; p < 0.001). Metabolic syndrome was present in 38.9% of those treated with clozapine compared to 31.1% of patients treated with LAI antipsychotic medications (X2 = 0.54, p = 0.46).
These findings suggest that a robust screening plan should be in place to monitor for metabolic syndrome in individuals treated with LAI antipsychotic medications. This screening should include measurement of body weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, lipids and fasting insulin levels. Early recognition of abnormal metabolic parameters allows early intervention, therefore, improving long-term cardiovascular outcomes.
To relate empirically derived dietary patterns identified using the Treelet Transform (TT) to risk of stroke.
A prospective cohort study using the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Dietary information was obtained in 1993–1997 using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Incident stroke diagnoses, obtained from the Danish National Patient Register, were verified by record review. Dietary patterns were generated using TT, and participants were categorised into quintiles based on their adherence to each pattern. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazard models estimated associations between dietary patterns and stroke.
55 061 men and women aged 50–64 years at the time of enrolment.
Three dietary patterns explaining 15·4 % of the total variance were identified: a Prudent pattern, a Western pattern and a Wine & Snacks pattern. During a follow-up time of 10 years, 1513 cases occurred. Comparing the highest to lowest quintiles of intake, adherence to a Prudent pattern was inversely associated with stroke (HRmen 0·74, 95 % CI 0·60, 0·91; HRwomen 0·82, 95 % CI 0·62, 1·08), while adherence to a Western pattern was associated with greater risk (HRmen 1·61, 95 % CI 1·23, 2·10; HRwomen 2·01, 95 % CI 1·48, 2·72). No association was found for a Wine & Snacks pattern for women, but a weak inverse association was found for men (HR 0·81, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·99).
The results of this study are broadly in line with current recommendations for a healthy diet to prevent stroke.
Australian conservation cropping systems are practiced on very large farms (~3000 ha) where herbicides are relied on for effective and timely weed control. In many fields though there are low weed densities (e.g. <1.0 plant 10 m-2) and whole field herbicide treatments are wasteful. For fallow weed control, commercially available weed detection systems provide the opportunity for site-specific herbicide treatments removing the need for whole field treatment of fallow fields with low weed densities. Concern for the sustainability of herbicide reliant weed management systems remain and there is not now interest in the use of weed detection systems for alternative weed control technologies, such as targeted tillage. This paper presents the use of a targeted tillage technique for site-specific weed control in large-scale crop production systems. Three small-scale prototypes were used for engineering and weed control efficacy testing across a range of species and growth stages. With confidence established in the design approach and a demonstrated 100% weed-control potential, a 6 m wide pre-commercial prototype, the “Weed Chipper” was built incorporating commercially available weed detection cameras for practical field-scale evaluation. This testing confirmed very high (90%) weed control efficacies and associated low-levels (1.8%) of soil disturbance where the weed density was <1.0 plant 10 m-2 in a commercial fallow. These data established the suitability of this mechanical approach to weed control for conservation cropping systems. The development of targeted tillage for fallow weed control represents the introduction of site-specific, non-chemical weed control for conservation cropping systems.
Barramundi are a highly valued aquaculture species, and as obligate carnivores they have a demonstrated preference for dietary protein over lipid or starch to fuel energetic growth demands. In order to investigate how carnivorous fish regulate nutritional cues, we examined the metabolic effects of feeding two iso-energetic diets that contained different proportions of digestible protein or starch energy. Fish fed a high proportion of dietary starch energy had a higher proportion of liver saturated fatty acids, but showed no change in plasma glucose levels, and few changes in the expression of genes regulating key hepatic metabolic pathways. Decreased activation of the mTOR growth signalling cascade was consistent with decreased growth performance values. The fractional synthetic rate (FSR = lipogenesis), measured by triglyceride (TAG) 2H-enrichment using 2H NMR, was significantly higher in barramundi fed with the Starch diet compared with the Protein diet (0.6 ± 0.1 vs. 0.4 ± 0.1 % d-1, respectively). Hepatic TAG-bound glycerol synthetic rates were much higher than other closely related fish such as seabass, but were not significantly different (Starch, 2.8 ± 0.3 vs. Protein, 3.4 ± 0.3 % d-1), highlighting the role of glycerol as a metabolic intermediary and high TAG-FA cycling in barramundi. Overall, dietary starch significantly increased hepatic TAG through increased lipogenesis. Compared with other fish, barramundi possess a unique mechanism to metabolise dietary carbohydrates, and may define ways to improve performance of advanced formulated feeds.
Daily use of high-potency cannabis has been reported to carry a high risk for developing a psychotic disorder. However, the evidence is mixed on whether any pattern of cannabis use is associated with a particular symptomatology in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients.
We analysed data from 901 FEP patients and 1235 controls recruited across six countries, as part of the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We used item response modelling to estimate two bifactor models, which included general and specific dimensions of psychotic symptoms in patients and psychotic experiences in controls. The associations between these dimensions and cannabis use were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models analyses.
In patients, there was a linear relationship between the positive symptom dimension and the extent of lifetime exposure to cannabis, with daily users of high-potency cannabis having the highest score (B = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56). Moreover, negative symptoms were more common among patients who never used cannabis compared with those with any pattern of use (B = −0.22; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.07). In controls, psychotic experiences were associated with current use of cannabis but not with the extent of lifetime use. Neither patients nor controls presented differences in depressive dimension related to cannabis use.
Our findings provide the first large-scale evidence that FEP patients with a history of daily use of high-potency cannabis present with more positive and less negative symptoms, compared with those who never used cannabis or used low-potency types.
A prevalence study was conducted on German sheep flocks including goats if they cohabitated with sheep. In addition, a novel approach was applied to identify an infection at the herd-level before lambing season with preputial swabs, suspecting venereal transmission and ensuing colonisation of preputial mucosa with Coxiella (C.) burnetii. Blood samples and genital swabs were collected from breeding males and females after the mating season and were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) respectively. In total, 3367 animals were sampled across 71 flocks. The true herd-level prevalence adjusted for misclassification probabilities of the applied diagnostic tests using the Rogan-Gladen estimator for the prevalence estimate and a formula by Lang and Reiczigel (2014) for the confidence limits, ranged between 31.3% and 33% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 17.3–45.5) detected by the ELISA and/or qPCR. Overall 26–36.6% (95% CI 13–56.8) were detected by ELISA, 13.9% (95% CI 4.5–23.2) by the qPCR and 7.9–11.2% (95% CI 0.08–22.3) by both tests simultaneously. The range of results is due to data obtained from literature with different specifications for test quality for ELISA. Among eight farms with females shedding C. burnetii, three farms (37.5%) could also be identified by preputial swabs from breeding sires. This indicates less reliability of preputial swabs if used as a single diagnostic tool to detect C. burnetii infection at the herd-level.
Until recently, beef carcass payment grids were predominantly based on weight and fatness categories with some adjustment for age, defined as number of adult teeth, to determine the price received by Australian beef producers for slaughter cattle. With the introduction of the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading system, the beef industry has moved towards payments that account for intramuscular fat (IMF) content (marble score (MarbSc)) and MSA grades. The possibility of a payment system based on lean meat yield (LMY, %) has also been raised. The BeefSpecs suite of tools has been developed to assist producers to meet current market specifications, specifically P8-rump fat and hot standard carcass weight (HCW). A series of equations have now been developed to partition empty body fat and fat-free weight into carcass fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) and then into flesh FFM (FleshFFM) and flesh FM (FleshFM) to predict carcass components from live cattle assessments. These components then predict denuded lean (kg) and finally LMY (%) that contribute to emerging market specifications. The equations, along with the MarbSc equation, are described and then evaluated using two independent datasets. The decomposition of evaluation datasets demonstrates that error in prediction of HCW (kg), bone weight (BoneWt, kg), FleshFFM (kg), FleshFM (kg), MarbSc and chemical IMF percentage (ChemIMF%) is shown to be largely random error (%) in evaluation dataset 1, though error for ChemIMF% was primarily slope bias (%) in evaluation dataset 1, and BoneWt had substantial mean bias (%) in evaluation dataset 2. High modelling efficiencies of 0.97 and 0.95 for predicting HCW for evaluation datasets 1 and 2, respectively, suggest a high level of accuracy and precision in the prediction of HCW. The new outputs of the model are then described as to their role in estimating MSA index scores. The modelling system to partition chemical components of the empty body into carcass components is not dependent on the base modelling system used to derive empty body FFM and FM. This can be considered a general process that could be used with any appropriate model of body composition.
Since nutritional requirements are increased at the end of gestation to meet the demands of the pregnant uterus, pregnant beef cows are susceptible to mobilization of body reserves (mainly fat and amino acids (AAs)) and to alter the metabolism of nutrients in the liver and muscle to support such demands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CP supplementation on maternal nutrient metabolism in the late gestation of beef cows grazing a low-quality pasture. Forty-three pregnant Nellore cows gestating male fetuses (average age = 6 years; average weight = 544 kg) at 193 ± 30 (mean ± SD) days (d) of gestation were divided into eight groups (experimental units, with four to five cows each). Treatments were (1) control (CON, n = 4): pasture-based (PB) diet without CP supplementation and (2) supplemented (SUP, n = 4): PB diet daily supplemented with 2 g/kg of BW of a 43.5% CP supplement. Liver and skeletal muscle biopsies were performed at 265 days of gestation and samples were collected for mRNA expression. On day 280 of gestation, blood samples were collected to assess plasma levels of AA. The CON-fed cows tended to have greater (P = 0.057) total circulating AA than SUP-fed cows. The circulating glycogenic AA was greater (P = 0.035) in CON than in SUP cows. CON cows was greater for histidine (P = 0.015), methionine (P = 0.007) and alanine (P = 0.036) than SUP cows. The CON- and SUP-fed showed no differences for gluconeogenesis, fatty acid transport and signaling axis markers in the liver. The mRNA expression of markers for skeletal muscle synthesis, p7056k (P = 0.060) and GSK3B (P = 0.096), tended to be greater in cows from CON than SUP group. No differences were found for mRNA expression of markers for skeletal muscle degradation. We conclude that CP supplementation to CP-restricted late-pregnant beef cows reduces the maternal tissue mobilization and changes the profile of plasma circulating AA and the mRNA expression of markers for the synthesis of skeletal muscle tissue.
Objective measurement of resting metabolic rate (RMR) may be important for optimal nutritional care but is hindered by the price and practicality of the metabolic monitoring device. This study compared two metabolic monitoring devices for measuring RMR and oxygen consumption (VO2) and compared the measured RMR with the predicted RMR calculated from equations. RMR was measured using QUARK RMR (reference device) and Fitmate GS (COSMED) in a random order for 30 minutes, each on fasted participants. In total, 68 adults participated (median age 22 years, interquartile range 21-32). Pearson correlation showed that RMR (r=0.86) and VO2 (r=0.86) were highly correlated between the two devices (p<0.05). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) showed good relative agreements regarding RMR (ICC=0.84) and VO2 (ICC=0.84) (p<0.05). RMR measured by QUARK RMR was significantly higher (155±180 kcal/day) than Fitmate GS. Equations significantly overpredicted RMR. Accurate RMR (i.e. within ±10% of the RMR measured by QUAR RMR) was found among 38% of the participants for Fitmate GS, and among 46-68% depending on the equations. Bland-Altman analysis showed a low absolute agreement with QUARK RMR at an individual level for both Fitmate GS (limits of agreement (LOA): -198 to +508 kcal/day) and equations (LOA ranged from -473 to +449 kcal/day). In conclusion, both Fitmate GS and predictive equations had low absolute agreements with QUARK RMR at an individual level. Therefore, these limitations should be considered when determining RMR using Fitmate GS or equations.
The beginning of laminar–turbulent transition is usually associated with a wave-like disturbance, but its evolution and role in precipitating the development of other flow structures are not well understood from a structure-based view. Nonlinear parabolized stability equations (NPSE) were solved numerically to simulate the transition of K-regime, N-regime and O-regime. However, only the K-regime transition was examined experimentally using both hydrogen bubble visualization and time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV). Based on the ‘NPSE visualization’ and ‘tomographic visualization’, at least four common characteristics of the generic transition process were identified: (i) inflectional regions representing high-shear layers (HSL) that develop in vertical velocity profiles, accompanied by ejection–sweep behaviours; (ii) low-speed streak (LSS) patterns, manifested in horizontal timelines, that seem to consist of several three-dimensional (3-D) waves; (iii) a warped wave front (WWF) pattern, displaying multiple folding processes, which develops adjacent to the LSS in the near-wall region, prior to the appearance of 𝛬-vortices; (iv) a coherent 3-D wave front, similar to a soliton, in the upper boundary layer, accompanied by regions of depression along the flanks of the wave. It was determined that the amplification and lift-up of a 3-D wave causes the development of the HSL, WWF and multiple folding behaviour of material surfaces, that all contribute to the development of a 𝛬-vortex. The amplified 3-D wave is hypothesized as a soliton-like coherent structure. Based on our results, a path to transition is proposed, which hypothesizes the function of the WWF in boundary-layer transition.