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Chapter 4 approaches “Erwartung,” Op. 17, as a leitmotivic opera, in contrast to previous literature that emphasizes its “athematic” and “amotivic” qualities. The process within which the opera’s central motive transforms from <D, F, C#> (and its set-class 3-3) to <D, F, A, C#>, and finally into a quotation from Schoenberg’s Op. 6 song “Am Wegrand” portrays a two-step image of emergence – first of the dead body of the Woman’s lover, and then of the realization that he is dead, and she will live the rest of her life without him in “collective loneliness.” This process of motivic emergence is similar to the “cumulative settings” that J. Peter Burkholder proposed for the music of Charles Ives (but the elements that undergo this process in Schoenberg's music are much smaller). In addition, my analysis shows how families of set classes also serve leitmotivic functions: representing the lover’s body, the Woman’s fear, startling objects in the forest, and momentary feelings of reassurance. In this way, Erwartung can be understood as an inspiration for Alban Berg’s opera Wozzeck.
Chapter 2 demonstrates how the second and third Piano Pieces of Op. 11 form a cycle together with the first, in that they take up motives, harmonies, and processes that were introduced in the first piece, and use them to create narratives of conflict, elaboration, and solution – “musical ideas.” Op. 11’s processes include an expansion of pitch intervals within motives that generalizes into an expansion of pitch-class intervals within set classes, and an “explanatory” process that shows how unfamiliar pitch-interval collections can be reconciled to familiar motives through set-class identity with them. In Op. 11, No. 2, a conflict between set classes and motives similar to the one found in Op. 11, No. 1, is elaborated and resolved using the “explanatory” process, among other devices. In Op. 11, No. 3, the expanding and explanatory processes exist side by side in conflict, but rather than coming together in a solution, the expanding process simply crowds out the explanatory one, so that the “musical idea” is incomplete. My analysis of Op. 11, No. 3, pushes back against the common notion of the piece as “athematic,” in that it portrays the piece as a battle of motivic processes.
Chapter 6 presents Pierrot lunaire as autobiographical. It portrays Schoenberg being led astray into atonality by the moonlight, suffering the consequences (alienation from his audience, excoriation by the critics), and attempting to return to his older style but falling short. These different stages of Pierrot/Schoenberg’s journey are depicted by “basic images” that control the pitch and rhythmic organization. I explain three of them in detail: in “Mondestrunken,” the image of moonlight streaming down towards the composer in waves gives rise to chains of tetrachords linked by common pitch classes, that is, weak and strong Rp relations, and in “Die Kreuze” the image of musical works as crosses on which the composer is crucified is depicted by horizontally and vertically symmetrical pitch and pitch-class configurations that move around to various axes of symmetry, before locking in with finality to a single axis. In “O alter Duft” the journey homeward that becomes only a fairytale at the last minute provides an opportunity for Schoenberg to use specters of tonal function as text-painting devices, by repeatedly setting up for tonal cadences and then thwarting them at the last minute.
In Chapter 5, the Six Little Piano Pieces of Op. 19 are portrayed as a step in the direction of clear and traditional musical form, and more audible motivic processes, after the more abrupt forms and less obvious motivic relations (though far from non-existent) of Op. 11, No. 3, and Erwartung. I describe Pieces No. 2, 3, and 6 in detail, showing that these miniatures are organized by the same frameworks, “musical idea” and “basic image,” as previous works analysed in the book. Piece No. 2 manifests a musical idea that grows out of a conflict between hexatonic, octatonic, and whole-tone subsets, in which the hexatonic emerges victorious over the other two. Piece No. 3 expresses an “idea” of the same kind, but at the last minute the hexatonic collection’s ability to synthesize is thwarted by diatonic subsets. And piece No. 6, the famous portrayal of Mahler’s funeral bells, portrays an image of Schoenberg reaching up to take Mahler’s mantle as tonal composer, but falling back down into first pandiatonic territory and then chromaticism.
Chapter 3 turns its attention to the “Book of the Hanging Gardens” songs, Op. 15 – some of Schoenberg’s earliest atonal pieces. As settings of texts by Stefan George, these songs illustrate the large framework I call “basic image.” A basic image distills a visual shape of some sort from the poem’s first few lines of text, then uses it to control various aspects of the song’s pitch and rhythm. In Op. 15, No. 7, “Angst und Hoffen,” the basic image is of a lover turning his face alternately upward toward hope and downward toward fear (that his beloved would be lost to him), while his body first constricts, then expands to emit longer and longer sighs. In Op. 15, No. 11, “Als wir hinter dem beblümten Tore,” the guiding image is that of a memory (of a past tryst with the beloved) in the lover’s mind that disappears, but is at least partially recovered after some striving. This second image has points in common with the other kind of framework, the “musical idea.”
Chapter 7 reviews the arguments presented throughout the whole book, reminding the reader that my portrayal of Schoenberg’s atonal music as connected by common frameworks such as “musical idea” and “basic image” goes against the grain of much previous Schoenberg scholarship. It argues against the idea that each piece creates its own unique organization (the concept of “contextual atonality”) and also against the notion that Schoenberg went through a phase in 1909–11 where he abandoned motives and motivic process. But if the atonal music can be understood as a logical, continuous development with its pieces linked by common frameworks, how can one justify Schoenberg’s turn to 12-tone music in the 1920s? The latter part of my chapter explains the transition as motivated by two factors (with analysis of selected pieces): the desire for regular circulation through the 12-tone aggregate, and the need for complete control over all pitch classes of the piece through transformation of the Grundgestalt.
The introductory chapter begins by offering a rebuttal to Ethan Haimo’s claim in Schoenberg's Transformation of Musical Language (Cambridge, 2006) that “atonal” is an inappropriate term for Schoenberg's middle-period music. It does so by presenting Schenkerian analyses of “Jesus bettelt,” Op. 2, No. 2, and the first Piano Piece, Op. 11, demonstrating that the traditional contrapuntal structures of tonal music are present in the first piece, though often harmonized with unusual chords, but are incomplete or non-existent in the second piece. The chapter then proceeds to show how features originally characteristic of tonal music, other than typical Schenkerian middlegrounds, play crucial roles in organizing Op. 11, No. 1 – traditional tonal form, as well as motivic and harmonic processes that manifest and elaborate the “musical idea,” a conflict-elaboration-solution narrative.
Award-winning author Jack Boss returns with the 'prequel' to Schoenberg's Twelve-Tone Music (Cambridge, 2014) demonstrating that the term 'atonal' is meaningful in describing Schoenberg's music from 1908 to 1921. This book shows how Schoenberg's atonal music can be understood in terms of successions of pitch and rhythmic motives and pitch-class sets that flesh out the large frameworks of 'musical idea' and 'basic image'. It also explains how tonality, after losing its structural role in Schoenberg's music after 1908, begins to re-appear not long after as an occasional expressive device. Like its predecessor, Schoenberg's Atonal Music contains close readings of representative works, including the Op. 11 and Op. 19 Piano Pieces, the Op. 15 George-Lieder, the monodrama Erwartung, and Pierrot lunaire. These analyses are illustrated by richly detailed musical examples, revealing the underlying logic of some of Schoenberg's most difficult pieces of music.
Critical heart disease in the pediatric population is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Research around the most effective communication and decision-making strategies is lacking. This systematic review aims to summarise what is known about parent preference for communication and decision-making in children with critical heart disease. Database searches included key words such as family, pediatric heart disease, communication, and decision-making. A total of 10 studies fit our inclusion criteria: nine were qualitative studies with parent interviews and one study was quantitative with a parent survey. We found three main themes regarding physician–parent communication and decision-making in the context of paediatric heart disease: (1) amount, timing, and content of information provided to parents; (2) helpful physician characteristics and communication styles; and (3) reinforcing the support circle for families.
Families of the missing often have no facts to clarify whether their loved one is alive or dead, or if dead, where the remains are located. Such loss is called “ambiguous loss”, and those suffering from it will usually resist change and will continue to hope that the missing person will return. As this article will endeavour to explain, our goal as professionals working with the families of the missing is to help them shift to another way of thinking that allows them to live well despite ambiguous loss. To do this, we must acknowledge that the source of suffering – the ambiguity – lies outside the family. The article offers a psychosocial model with six guidelines focusing on meaning, mastery, identity, ambivalence, attachment, and finding new hope.
Phytoplankton are the foundation of aquatic food webs. Through photosynthesis, phytoplankton draw down
at magnitudes equivalent to forests and other terrestrial plants and convert it to organic material that is then consumed by other planktonic organisms in higher trophic levels. Mechanisms that affect local concentrations and velocities are of primary significance to many encounter-based processes in the plankton, including prey–predator interactions, fertilization and aggregate formation. We report results from simulations of sinking phytoplankton, considered as elongated spheroids, in homogenous isotropic turbulence to answer the question of whether trajectories and velocities of sinking phytoplankton are altered by turbulence. We show in particular that settling spheroids with physical characteristics similar to those of diatoms weakly cluster and preferentially sample regions of downwelling flow, corresponding to an increase of the mean settling speed with respect to the mean settling speed in quiescent fluid. We explain how different parameters can affect the settling speed and what underlying mechanisms might be involved. Interestingly, we observe that the increase in the aspect ratio of the prolate spheroids can affect the clustering and the average settling speed of particles by two mechanisms: first is the effect of aspect ratio on the rotation rate of the particles, which saturates faster than the second mechanism of increasing drag anisotropy.