To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This research examined the relationships between work environment (i.e., workload and development opportunities), heavy work investment (i.e., work engagement and workaholism) and work-to-family conflict (WFC) over time. A three-wave longitudinal study was conducted among 464 employees from a Belgian public administration. Workload and opportunities for development at Time 1 were found to be respectively negatively and positively associated with work engagement at Time 2, which in turn was negatively associated with WFC at Time 3. Only workload at Time 1 was positively associated with workaholism at Time 2 which, in turn, was positively associated with WFC at Time 3. In the interests of both organizational effectiveness and employees’ well-being, it is important to identify the work-related variables that influence perceptions of WFC. Moreover, in order to manage human resources effectively in companies, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which the work environment influences WFC.
Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death in combat, although early recognition of hemorrhage is still challenging on the battlefield.
The objective of this study was to describe the shock index (SI) in a healthy military population, and to measure its variation during a controlled blood loss, simulated by blood donation.
A prospective observational study that enrolled military subjects, volunteers for blood donation, was conducted. Demographic and clinical information, concerning both the patient and the blood collection, were recorded. Baseline vital signs were measured, before and after donation, in a 45° supine position. Statistical analysis was performed after calculation of SI.
A total of 483 participants were included in the study. The mean blood donation volume was 473mL (SD = 44mL). The median pre- and post-blood donation SI were significantly different: 0.54 (IQR = 0.48-0.63) and 0.57 (IQR = 0.49-0.66), respectively (P = .002). Changes in pre-/post-donation blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) also reached statistical difference but represented a clinically poor relevance. The multivariate analysis showed no significant associations between SI variations and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), sport activities, blood donation volume, and enteral volume replacement (EVR).
In this model of mild hemorrhage, SI exhibited significant variations but failed to reach clinical relevance. Further studies are needed to prove the benefit of SI calculation as a possible parameter for early recognition of hemorrhage in combat casualties at the point of injury.
Pasquier P, Duron S, Pouget T, Carbonnel AC, Boutonnet M, Malgras B, Barbier O, de Saint Maurice G, Sailliol A, Ausset S, Martinaud C. Use of shock index to identify mild hemorrhage: an observational study in military blood donors. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(3):303–307.
New fossil material of Auliscomys formosus Reig 1978 allows restudy of the oldest known South American representative of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. Description of Auliscomys formosus was based on a fragmentary dentary exhumed from the Monte Hermoso Formation of central Argentina. Previous studies allocated A. formosus to the early Pliocene. A reevaluation of dental and cranial morphology, including for the first time the upper dentition, and the inclusion of A. formosus in a phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Phyllotini indicate that A. formosus represents a new genus, Kraglievichimys. Kraglievichimys shares a mosaic of characters with the living Auliscomys Osgood, 1915 and Loxodontomys Osgood, 1947. The taxonomic reassignment of A. formosus and the possibility that the Monte Hermoso Formation may be younger than early Pliocene in age provide a new understanding of cricetid diversification in South America. Estimates of sigmodontine ancestry by molecular approaches are biased toward older ages, whereas this new interpretation of the history of K. formosus suggests that the South American history of sigmodontines spans less than 4 million years.
Can frontier-based development be successful? The short answer to this question is: “Why not?” As we have discussed, since 1500, “frontier expansion” has been a major part of global economic development. It is characterized by a pattern of capital investment, technological innovation and social and economic institutions dependent on “opening up” new frontiers of land and natural resources once existing ones have been “closed” and exhausted. Most of this development has been incredibly successful, particularly during the Golden Age of Resource-Based Development (1870–1913).
Chapter 1 ended with a key paradox concerning the role of natural resources in economic development: Why is it that, despite the importance of natural capital for sustainable economic development, increasing economic dependence on natural resource exploitation appears to be a hindrance to growth and development in the majority of low- and middle-income economies of the world? Of course, it is important to examine this paradox in light of the use of natural resources by today’s developing economies and how current economic theories represent this use. In fact, Chapters 3 and 4 will do precisely that.
The “stylized facts” reviewed in Chapter 1 suggest that the vast majority of low- and middle-income economies tend to be resource dependent, in terms of a high concentration of primary products to total exports, and that these economies appear to perform poorly. In addition, development in low- and middle-income countries is associated with land conversion and increased stress on freshwater resources, and a significant share of the rural population in developing economies is located in marginal agricultural areas.
As the title indicates, this book explores the contribution of natural resources to economic development in low- and middle-income countries. There has been increased interest in the application of natural resource economics in these countries, now that it has been recognized that the environment is not a “luxury” for economic development, but contains natural “capital” fundamental to growth and development in poorer economies.
The previous two chapters of Part II focused on the economic factors and conditions determining land conversion in developing countries. This chapter is concerned with the problem of freshwater availability and use, which was highlighted in Chapter 1 as an important “stylized fact” of the role of natural resources in economic development for many low- and middle-income economies.
The introductory chapter highlights the structural dependence of many low- and middle-income economies on natural resource exploitation. Chapter 2 reviews many theories that, on the whole, suggest that natural resource exploitation has been the main feature of economic development and trade in the developing world historically. These theories generally suggest that the exploitation of the natural resources of a country is, at the very least, an important first step in its economic development.
The main aim of the first four chapters comprising Part I of this book was to address a key paradox facing present-day low- and middle-income economies: Why is it that, despite the importance of natural capital for sustainable economic development, increasing economic dependence on natural resource exploitation appears to be a hindrance to growth and development in poor countries?
This chapter, which begins Part III, centers on a third important aspect of natural resources and economic development in poor countries: namely, that many of the poor in low- and middle-income economies are located in rural areas and remain dependent on agricultural and other renewable resources for their livelihoods, as emphasized by the above quote from Partha Dasgupta. This has two important implications for an economic approach to improved resource management for sustainable development in poor countries. First, we need to understand better the linkages between rural poverty and resource degradation, especially how they might lead to poverty–environment traps in certain geographical areas.