The validity and reliability of haematuria when used as screening criteria in community diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis is presented. Between May and July, 1998, 1173 persons were screened for haematuria and examined for the presence of eggs of Schistosoma haematobium in their urine from all participating households in the Ozitem area of Bende Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. Haematuria showed a sensitivity rate of 41.0% and specificity of 82.0% when used to identify cases of urinary schistosomiasis. Some factors that influenced the validity of haematuria as a diagnostic criterion are discussed. The use of haematuria amongst subjects in the first twenty years of their life is recommended.