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Probiotic yogurt and milk supplemented with probiotics have been investigated for their role in ‘low-grade’ inflammation but evidence for their efficacy is inconclusive. This study explores the impact of probiotic yogurt on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers, with a parallel study of gut microbiota dynamics. The randomised cross-over study was conducted in fourteen healthy, young men to test probiotic yogurt compared with milk acidified with 2 % d-(+)-glucono-δ-lactone during a 2-week intervention (400 g/d). Fasting assessments, a high-fat meal test (HFM) and microbiota analyses were used to assess the intervention effects. Baseline assessments for the HFM were carried out after a run-in during which normal milk was provided. No significant differences in the inflammatory response to the HFM were observed after probiotic yogurt compared with acidified milk intake; however, both products were associated with significant reductions in the inflammatory response to the HFM compared with the baseline tests (assessed by IL6, TNFα and chemokine ligand 5) (P<0·001). These observations were accompanied by significant changes in microbiota taxa, including decreased abundance of Bilophila wadsworthia after acidified milk (log 2-fold-change (FC)=–1·5, Padj=0·05) and probiotic yogurt intake (FC=–1·3, Padj=0·03), increased abundance of Bifidobacterium species after acidified milk intake (FC=1·4, Padj=0·04) and detection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus (FC=7·0, Padj<0·01) and Streptococcus salivarius spp. thermophilus (FC=6·0, Padj<0·01) after probiotic yogurt intake. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation that is associated with a HFM while inducing distinct changes in the gut microbiota of healthy men. These observations could be relevant for dietary treatments that target ‘low-grade’ inflammation.
Exposure to trauma was found to increase later violent behaviours in youth but the underlying psychopathological mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to test whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is related to violent behaviours and whether PTSD symptoms mediate the relationship between the number of trauma experiences and violent behaviours in adolescents.
The present study is based on a nationally representative sample of 9th grade students with 3434 boys (mean age = 15.5 years) and 3194 girls (mean age = 15.5 years) in Switzerland. Lifetime exposure to traumatic events and current PTSD were assessed by the use of the University of California at Los Angeles Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA-RI). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between PTSD and violent behaviours, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine the meditation effects of PTSD.
PTSD (boys: OR = 7.9; girls: OR = 5.5) was strongly related to violent behaviours. PTSD symptoms partially mediated the association between trauma exposure and violent behaviours in boys but not in girls. PTSD symptoms of dysphoric arousal were positively related to violent behaviours in both genders. Anxious arousal symptoms were negatively related to violent behaviours in boys but not in girls.
In addition to trauma, posttraumatic stress is related to violent outcomes. However, specific symptom clusters of PTSD seem differently related to violent behaviours and they do not fully explain a trauma-violence link. Specific interventions to improve emotion regulation skills may be useful particularly in boys with elevated PTSD dysphoric arousal in order to break up the cycle of violence.
The paper examines the role of civil society organisations (CSOs) in Zimbabwe's interim power-sharing process. It identifies CSOs’ organisational capacity, nature of engagement in the political process and relations with the power-sharing parties as the principal issues affecting CSOs’ ability to promote peace-making and democratisation in the context of a transitional executive power-sharing process. Based on these analytical themes, the case analysis argues that CSOs’ sway on the transition was particularly constrained by organisational fragmentation and disunity, divergent strategies vis-à-vis the interregnum, diminishing access to political elites, the latter's refusal to permit greater civic involvement, and continued repression.
Crossnational comparisons of crime are usually based in two main types of sources: crime statistics and crime surveys. Provided they use the same questionnaire and the same methodology, crime surveys constitute the best source for comparisons. Comparisons based on surveys are described in other sections of this book. This chapter is devoted to crossnational comparisons based on official statistics, which include police, prosecution, conviction, and correctional statistics. Because these statistics measure the reaction to crime and not crime itself, comparisons based on them are usually called comparisons of recorded crime.
Theoretically, official statistics allow researchers to compare offences, suspects, and offenders throughout the criminal justice system – from suspects known to the police to offenders imprisoned – as well as sanctions and measures imposed in different countries. However, in practice, such comparisons are often methodologically inappropriate because official statistics are constructed in a different way in each country. This means that, in most cases, crossnational differences in recorded crime rates do not reflect actual differences in the levels of crime.
The main sources for crossnational comparisons of recorded-crime are
indicated in another section of this book. We have illustrated this chapter
with examples from the European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics, the American Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, the United Nations Surveys on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (UNCTS), and the Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics (SPACE I).
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is frequently co-occurring with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Because ODD is a precursor of later conduct disorder (CD) and affective disorders, early diagnostic identification is warranted. Furthermore, the predictability of three recently confirmed ODD dimensions (ODD-irritable, ODD-headstrong and ODD-hurtful) may assist clinical decision making.
Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used in order to test the diagnostic accuracy of the Conners' Parent Rating Scale revised (CPRS-R) and the parent version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (PSDQ) in the prediction of ODD in a transnational sample of 1093 subjects aged 5–17 years from the International Multicentre ADHD Genetics study. In a second step, the prediction of three ODD dimensions by the same parent rating scales was assessed by backward linear regression analyses.
ROC analyses showed adequate diagnostic accuracy of the CPRS-R and the PSDQ in predicting ODD in this ADHD sample. Furthermore, the three-dimensional structure of ODD was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis and the CPRS-R emotional lability scale significantly predicted the ODD irritable dimension.
The PSDQ and the CPRS-R are both suitable screening instruments in the identification of ODD. The emotional lability scale of the CPRS-R is an adequate predictor of irritability in youth referred for ADHD.
The main objective was to examine agreement between the internet based Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) generated diagnoses and clinical diagnoses. Second, we aimed to explore how disclosure of the DAWBA-diagnosis before clinical decision making influenced the clinicians diagnosis. Third, whether there were differences of influence for different categories of disorders. Last, we examined how the use of DAWBA information affected identification of co-morbidities.
315 patients from outpatient clinics were randomised into two groups. In 177 cases the clinician was informed about DAWBA diagnosis, in 155 cases the clinican was blind to DAWBA information. DAWBA is an internet based package of questionnaires and rating techniques designed to generate psychiatric ICD10 or DSM IV diagnoses for 5- 17 year old children and adolescents. Information from parents, teachers and self-reports are brought together by a computer programme that predicts likely diagnoses. An expert rater decides on the diagnosis by synopsis of these different inputs.
DAWBA diagnoses and clinical diagnosis without information from DAWBA showed acceptable agreement with Cohens kappa 0,26 for emotional disorders, kappa of 0,29 for hyperactive disorders and kappa of 0.31 for disruptive disorders.
There was a significant effect on clinical diagnoses for emotional disorders for disclosure of DAWBA (kappa of 0.26 without DAWBA information versus kappa of 0,52 with information, Fishers z of p< 0,05)
There was no significant effect of information about DAWBA-diagnosis considering comorbidities.
DAWBA showed the most pronounced effect on clinical diagnoses for emotional disorders in children and adolescents.
The aim of the present study was to describe the population of juvenile sex offenders in the Canton of Zurich by a retrospective analysis of a consecutive sample of the police and judicial records between 2000 and 2008. Offence characteristics have been studied and compared to demographic and psychopathological factors of the adolescent offenders. Reoffence risk was assessed by the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol (J-SOAP-II) and compared to sexual and general recidivism.
A youth-adapted version of the Forensic-Psychiatric Documentation System (FDPS) has been used for data collection. Recidivism has been assessed by the official crime database of the Canton of Zurich until October 2009.
Preliminary results show that the population of juvenile sex offenders is of heterogeneous nature. Intensity of sexual behavior and violence varies significantly in the sample (N = 351). Mostly the juvenile offenders have been arrested after committing one criminal act (56.4%). With exception of pornographic offences (35.9%), sexual coercion (32.8%) and sexual assaults against children (27.4%) were the most frequent crimes. Psychiatric assessments of the most serious juvenile offenders found frequent behavioral (43.6%) and emotional disorders (18.1%) but only one case of paraphilia. Results of risk assessment and recidivism are in preparation and will be added to the final presentation.
Juvenile sex offenders are a complex population and can not been compared to adult offenders according to offence characteristics and crime motivation. Developmental factors have to be included when assessing and treating juvenile sex offenders.
The substitution sites of Pb and Dy dopants in the cuprate-type high temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O
are determined by a direct comparison of the angle-scanned X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) patterns. We demonstrate the power of XPD as a fingerprinting tool and conclude that Pb occupies Bi sites and Dy the Ca sites. The presence of the incommensurate lattice modulation is not visible in XPD, probably due to a Pb-induced, reduced modulation amplitude.
The research on structural materials, notably in metallurgy, was the pioneering discipline
of the materials science. Besides “traditional” materials as metallic alloys and polymers
which are following up their progresses, the materials of wide uses and large diffusion,
like concrete, rubber, textiles, wood, paper and cardboard are now benefiting of the
advanced researches allowed by the progresses of the investigation and modelling methods
able to provide information on their great complexity linked to the fact they generally
are mixtures. High strength materials gain from active researches dealing with experimental
studies as well as modelling of the production processes, multiscale approaches of the
structures, properties, behaviour and optimized selection providing both scientific
advancement and improved applications. “System-materials” are another field of stuctural
materials, often in connexion with functionnal materials. Artificially built by putting
together elements going from atoms to fibers or particles of different sizes: composites,
smart materials, structural nanomaterials have opened the way to wide research perspectives
and exiting applications. Interdisciplinar researches on optimized mechanical behaviour,
chemical and topological analysis of the microstructure and processes modelling,
multiphysics modelling of the behaviour of structures and properties are developed
thanks to the advancement of the available instrumentation and calculation facilities.
Studies on the implementation of these materials providing an improved control of the
performances of the produced parts and objects need a renewed stimulation. Data bases
concerning thermodynamic properties as well as kinetics ones, mechanical and thermophysical
properties are necessary input data for these approaches and improvements. A continuous
enrichment of these bases is of vital importance.
To acquire data on pediatric nosocomial infections (NIs), which are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and for which data are scarce.
Prevalence survey and evaluation of a new comorbidity index.
Seven Swiss pediatric hospitals.
Those hospitalized for at least 24 hours in a medical, surgical, intensive care, or intermediate care ward.
Thirty-five NIs were observed among 520 patients (6.7%; range per hospital, 1.4% to 11.8%). Bacteremia was most frequent (2.5 per 100 patients), followed by urinary tract infection (1.3 per 100 patients) and surgical-site infection (1.1 per 100 patients; 3.2 per 100 patients undergoing surgery). The median duration until the onset of infection was 19 days. Independent risk factors for NI were age between 1 and 12 months, a comorbidity score of 2 or greater, and a urinary catheter. Among surgical patients, an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score of 2 or greater was associated with any type of NI (P = .03). Enterobacteriaceae were the most frequent cause of NI, followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci; viruses were rarely the cause.
This national prevalence survey yielded valuable information about the rate and risk factors of pediatric NI. A new comorbidity score showed promising performance. ASA score may be a predictor of NI. The season in which a prevalence survey is conducted must be considered, as this determines whether seasonal viral infections are observed. Periodic prevalence surveys are a simple and cost-effective method for assessing NI and comparing rates among pediatric hospitals.
Warts are common lesions. The prevalence and incidence of squamous papilloma of the nasal vestibulum are not known, and it is not certain how often human papilloma viruses are involved. Numerous medical or surgical treatment modalities have been reported in the literature with variable, sometimes unsatisfactory results. Imiquimod cream is a topically applied immunomodulator. It is used for warts and other skin tumours on different locations of the body. We report results of six patients treated with imiquimod five per cent cream for nasal squamous papilloma.
Oidiophores with uninucleate oidia are produced on the aerial mycelium of Coprinus cinereus and occasionally also on the submerged
mycelium. Oidiophore development starts with the formation of a stem cell and proceeds with stem cell elongation, followed by the
formation of oidial hyphae at the tip of the stem cell and subsequent release of matured oidia. However, analysis of more than 20
different C. cinereus strains revealed that oidiophore formation is a flexible process. Based on morphological variations, we defined
four main types of oidiophores. Types 1 and 2 oidiophores produced oidia at the tip(s) of simple (type 1) or branched stems (type
2). Types 3 and 4 oidiophores were characterized by the absence of stem cell elongation (type 3) or stem cell formation (type 4). All
strains examined produced types 1 and 2 oidiophores and some produced also types 3 and 4 oidiophores but the frequency of the
different oidiophore types varied strongly from strain to strain.