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Rabindranāth Tagore's contribution to the visual arts in India is twofold: his own work as a painter and his role in bringing about a new turn in Indian art. These two achievements cannot be separated. His role as a critical interlocutor must be considered alongside his success in becoming an acknowledged painter after having failed initially. Given his multifaceted creative personality, his paintings must also be related to the rest of his works.
Tagore began to paint only in 1928, at the age of sixty-seven. He held his first exhibition in Paris two years later and left an oeuvre of more than 2,300 paintings. However, his interest in painting has a longer history. In his reminiscences, he mentions drawing as an item in the all-round education he received at home as a boy. As with literature and music, he was first drawn to painting by the activities of his elders. His brother Jyotirindranāth, who had a pervasive influence on him, and his cousin Gunendranāth, whose sons Abanindranāth and Gaganendranāth became pioneers of modern art in India, were amateur painters of talent. Rabindranath recollects how, even as he was first gaining recognition as a writer, he would spend afternoons with a drawing book, ‘toying with the desire to make pictures’. He significantly continues: ‘The most important part was that which remained in the mind, and not a line of which got drawn on paper.’ At thirty-nine, he writes to Jagadishchandra Basu (Bose) that his artistic impulse remained as ineffectual as before. Soon after, he gave up the effort until, almost surprising himself, he resumed it successfully in late life.
Abandoning his initial efforts to become a painter did not end his interest in art. His continuing engagement as a critical viewer and interlocutor helped not only to develop a new trajectory of Indian art but also to discover new expressive possibilities in himself. His early response to art was, however, no different from that of other members of his class and time. His first recorded comment on modern Indian art is an appreciative response to Ravi Varmā, who imported the British academic style into Indian art and applied it to Indian subjects, especially mythological.
The relatively young theory of structured dependence between stochastic processes has many real-life applications in areas including finance, insurance, seismology, neuroscience, and genetics. With this monograph, the first to be devoted to the modeling of structured dependence between random processes, the authors not only meet the demand for a solid theoretical account but also develop a stochastic processes counterpart of the classical copula theory that exists for finite-dimensional random variables. Presenting both the technical aspects and the applications of the theory, this is a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in the field, as well as for graduate students in pure and applied mathematics programs. Numerous theoretical examples are included, alongside examples of both current and potential applications, aimed at helping those who need to model structured dependence between dynamic random phenomena.
Ethical education should help students become more sensitive to the perspectives and experiences of others. However, the field is dominated by the teaching of moral values as a subject-matter, or by the fostering of character traits in students, or by moral reasoning. This book proposes an alternative to these limited moralistic approaches. It places human relationships at the core of ethical education, in its understanding of both ethics and education. With contributions from renowned international scholars, this approach is laid out in three parts. Part One develops the underlying theory of ethics and education; Part Two focuses on the relevant pedagogical principles, and Part Three provides illustrations of emergent innovative ethical educational practices in worldwide schools. Against a backdrop of divisiveness and apathy, the innovative practices described in this book show how a new vision for ethical education might be centred around caring for students' well-being.
Are you ready to create an online course, but do not know where to start? Do your online learners seem isolated and disengaged? Are your online courses effective enough for the current, competitive market? Whether you are an instructor, instructional designer, or part of a team, this interactive workbook will help you create effective online courses to engage your learners. Key features of the workbook include integrating cognitive, social, and emotional aspects of learning; explaining the central role of self-reflection, dialogue, and realistic application; the incorporation of themes, scenarios, and characters to provide relevant and meaningful learning experiences; and the use of semiotics for inclusion of diverse learners. As you journey through the course creation process in this workbook, you will expand your ideas and discover new possibilities for the students taking your online course.
Anarchists who supported the Cuban War for Independence in the 1890s launched a transnational network linking radical leftists from their revolutionary hub in Havana, Cuba to South Florida, Puerto Rico, Panama, the Panama Canal Zone, and beyond. Over three decades, anarchists migrated around the Caribbean and back and forth to the US, printed fiction and poetry promoting their projects, transferred money and information across political borders for a variety of causes, and attacked (verbally and physically) the expansion of US imperialism in the “American Mediterranean.” In response, US security officials forged their own transnational anti-anarchist campaigns with officials across the Caribbean. In this sweeping new history, Kirwin R. Shaffer brings together research in anarchist politics, transnational networks, radical journalism and migration studies to illustrate how men and women throughout the Caribbean basin and beyond sought to shape a counter-globalization initiative to challenge the emergence of modern capitalism and US foreign policy whilst rejecting nationalist projects and Marxist state socialism.
Interdependence theory is a powerful and applicable theory that has shaped the study of interpersonal relationships for decades, providing foundational constructs and elucidating key assumptions within the burgeoning field of relationship science. Research guided by interdependence theory sheds light on the diverse phenomena within ongoing relationships, including the emergence of co-operation, trust, dependence, power, and relationship maintenance. At its core, interdependence theory pinpoints key elements of daily interactions that predict specific experiences and outcomes that people have in different situations. This handbook goes further to explain how interdependence theory continues to be used fruitfully in research, driving our current understanding of relational processes. We invite you to enter the world of interdependence and discover what top scholars across disciplines are discussing in their efforts to fully understand close, intimate relationships.
Explore and review novel techniques for intensifying transport and reaction in liquid-liquid and related systems with this essential toolkit. Topics include discussion of the principles of process intensification, the nexus between process intensification and sustainable engineering, and the fundamentals of liquid-liquid contacting, from an expert with over 45 years' experience in the field. Providing promising directions for investment and for new research in process intensification, in addition to a unique review of the fundamentals of the topic, this book is the perfect guide for senior undergraduate students, graduate students, developers, and research staff in chemical engineering and biochemical engineering.
This Companion provides an accessible guide for those seeking to comprehend the significance of Vatican II for Catholicism today. It offers a thorough overview of the Second Vatican Council, the most significant event in the history of Roman Catholicism since the Protestant Reformation. Almost six decades since the close of the council, its teaching remains what one pope referred to as a “sure compass” for guiding today's church. The first part of the volume examines the historical, theological, and ecclesial contexts for comprehending the significance of the council. It also presents the key processes as well as the participants who were central to the actual conduct of the council. The second part identifies and explores the central themes embedded in the council documents. The volume concludes with a unique appendix intended to guide students wishing to pursue more advanced research in Vatican II studies.
For years now, unionization has been under vigorous attack. Membership has been steadily declining, and with it union bargaining power. As a result, unions may soon lose their ability to protect workers from economic and personal abuse, as well as their significance as a political force. In the Name of Liberty responds to this worrying state of affairs by presenting a new argument for unionization, one that derives an argument for universal unionization in both the private and public sector from concepts of liberty that we already accept. In short, In the Name of Liberty reclaims the argument for liberty from the political right, and shows how liberty not only requires the unionization of every workplace as a matter of background justice, but also supports a wide variety of other progressive policies.
Newton's Principia is perhaps the second most famous work of mathematics, after Euclid's Elements. Originally published in 1687, it gave the first systematic account of the fundamental concepts of dynamics, as well as three beautiful derivations of Newton's law of gravitation from Kepler's laws of planetary motion. As a book of great insight and ingenuity, it has raised our understanding of the power of mathematics more than any other work. This heavily annotated translation of the third and final edition (1726) of the Principia will enable any reader with a good understanding of elementary mathematics to easily grasp the meaning of the text, either from the translation itself or from the notes, and to appreciate some of its significance. All forward references are given to illuminate the structure and unity of the whole, and to clarify the parts. The mathematical prerequisites for understanding Newton's arguments are given in a brief appendix.
From foraging patterns in a single tree to social interactions across a home range, how primates use space is a key question in the field of primate behavioral ecology. Drawing on the latest advances in spatial analysis tools, this book offers practical guidance on applying geographic information systems (GIS) to central questions in primatology. An initial methodological section discusses niche modelling, home range analysis and agent-based modelling, with a focus on remote data collection. Research-based chapters demonstrate how ecologists apply this technology to study intensity of range use and travel routes, as well as to population-level questions; how GIS can help to assess the impact of logging, mining and hunting, as well as to inform primate conservation strategies. Offering best practice guidelines on cutting-edge technologies, this is an indispensable resource for any primatologist or student of animal behaviour.
Human color perception is widely understood to be based on a neural coding system involving signals from three distinct classes of retinal photoreceptors. This retina processing model has long served as the mainstream scientific template for human color vision research and has also proven to be practically useful for designing display technologies, user-interfaces and medical diagnosis tools that enlist human color perception behaviors. Recent findings in the area of retina photopigment gene sequencing have made important updates to our understanding of the molecular basis and genetic inheritance of human color vision individual variations. This Element focuses on new knowledge about the linkages between color vision genetics and color perception variation, and the color perception consequences of inheriting alternative, non-normative, forms of genetic sequence variation.
Despite a century of study by ecologists, recovery following disturbances (succession) is not fully understood. This book provides the first global synthesis that compares plant succession in all major terrestrial biomes and after all major terrestrial disturbances. It asks critical questions such as: Does succession follow general patterns across biomes and disturbance types? Do factors that control succession differ from biome to biome? If common drivers exist, what are they? Are they abiotic or biotic, or both? The authors provide insights on broad, generalizable patterns that go beyond site-specific studies, and present discussions on factors such as varying temporal dynamics, latitudinal differences, human-caused vs. natural disturbances, and the role of invasive alien species. This book is a must-read for researchers and students in ecology, plant ecology, restoration ecology and conservation biology. It also provides a valuable framework to aid land managers attempting to manipulate successional recovery following increasingly intense and widespread human-made disturbances.
John R. Schneider explores the problem that animal suffering, caused by the inherent nature of Darwinian evolution, poses to belief in theism. Examining the aesthetic aspects of this moral problem, Schneider focuses on the three prevailing approaches to it: that the Fall caused animal suffering in nature (Lapsarian Theodicy), that Darwinian evolution was the only way for God to create an acceptably good and valuable world (Only-Way Theodicy), and that evolution is the source of major, God-justifying beauty (Aesthetic Theodicy). He also uses canonical texts and doctrines from Judaism and Christianity - notably the book of Job, and the doctrines of the incarnation, atonement, and resurrection - to build on insights taken from the non-lapsarian alternative approaches. Schneider thus constructs an original, God-justifying account of God and the evolutionary suffering of animals. His book enables readers to see that the Darwinian configuration of animal suffering unveiled by scientists is not as implausible on Christian theism as commonly supposed.
Our world is becoming more urban. More than fifty percent of the global population now lives in cities, which poses new challenges for sustainable development. This book integrates theory and methods of sustainability assessment with concepts from systems science to provide guidelines for assessing the sustainability of urban systems. It discusses different aspects of urban sustainability, from energy and housing, to mobility and health, covering social, economic and environmental factors, as well as the various stakeholders and actors involved. The book argues for the need to find models and solutions in order to design sustainable cities of the future in light of the complexity of urban social life. Including diverse case studies from the developed and developing world, this book provides a useful reference for researchers and students from a broad range of disciplines working in the field of sustainability, as well as for environmental consultants and policy makers.
Learn about the state-of-the-art at the interface between information theory and data science with this first unified treatment of the subject. Written by leading experts in a clear, tutorial style, and using consistent notation and definitions throughout, it shows how information-theoretic methods are being used in data acquisition, data representation, data analysis, and statistics and machine learning. Coverage is broad, with chapters on signal acquisition, data compression, compressive sensing, data communication, representation learning, emerging topics in statistics, and much more. Each chapter includes a topic overview, definition of the key problems, emerging and open problems, and an extensive reference list, allowing readers to develop in-depth knowledge and understanding. Providing a thorough survey of the current research area and cutting-edge trends, this is essential reading for graduate students and researchers working in information theory, signal processing, machine learning, and statistics.
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke sit together in the canon of political thought but are rarely treated in common historical accounts. This book narrates their intertwined careers during the Restoration period, when the two men found themselves in close proximity and entangled in many of the same political conflicts. Bringing new source material to bear, In the Shadow of Leviathan establishes the influence of Hobbesian thought over Locke, particularly in relation to the preeminent question of religious toleration. Excavating Hobbes's now forgotten case for a prudent, politique toleration gifted by sovereign power, Jeffrey R. Collins argues that modern, liberal thinking about toleration was transformed by Locke's gradual emancipation from this Hobbesian mode of thought. This book investigates those landmark events - the civil war, Restoration, the popish plot, the Revolution of 1688 - which eventually forced Locke to confront the limits of politique toleration, and to devise an account of religious freedom as an inalienable right.
Fifteenth-century Italy witnessed sweeping innovations in the art of sculpture. Sculptors rediscovered new types of images from classical antiquity and invented new ones, devised novel ways to finish surfaces, and pushed the limits of their materials to new expressive extremes. The Art of Sculpture in Fifteenth-Century Italy surveys the sculptural production created by a range of artists throughout the peninsula. It offers a comprehensive overview of Italian sculpture during a century of intense creativity and development. Here, nineteen historians of Quattrocento Italian sculpture chart the many competing forces that led makers, patrons, and viewers to invest sculpture with such heightened importance in this time and place. Methodologically wide-ranging, the essays, specially commissioned for this volume, explore the vast range of techniques and media (stone, metal, wood, terracotta, and stucco) used to fashion works of sculpture. They also examine how viewers encountered those objects, discuss varying approaches to narrative, and ponder the increasing contemporary interest in the relationship between sculpture and history.