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Mitochondrial activity and cytoskeleton organization in three pronuclei oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

  • Tuğba Kotil (a1), M. Ertan Kervancıoğlu (a2), Gülçin Ekter Kanten (a3), Gülden Tunalı (a4) and Seyhun Solakoğlu (a1)...


Digyny, the presence of a third pronucleus due to the failure of second polar body extrusion, is problematic after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) practices. Mitochondria have critical roles such as production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis during oocyte maturation, fertilization and the following development, while the regulation of meiotic spindle formation, chromosome segregation, pronuclear apposition and cytokinesis is closely associated with the cytoskeleton. In this study, mitochondrial membrane potential, distribution of F-actin and γ-tubulin, and the ultrastructure of three pronuclear (3PN) oocytes were investigated. 3PN oocytes after ICSI procedure were taken from patients who were enrolled in assisted reproduction programmes. For mitochondrial membrane potential analysis, fresh oocytes stained with the mitochondrial membrane potential probe JC-1, were evaluated under fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondrial membrane potential of three pronuclear oocytes showed similar results to normal zygotes. γ-Tubulin was stained strongly at the subplasmalemmal domain and microfilaments were localized at the cortical, but not the perinuclear, area. Cytoplasmic halos were moderately or not detected by electron microscopy; lipofuscin granules, degenerated mitochondria, and multilamellated bodies were seen in the ooplasm. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic findings suggested that mitochondrial membrane potential has no direct effect on second polar body extrusion. This abnormality can be associated with an altered cytoskeleton due to poor oocyte quality.


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Author for correspondence: Tuğba Kotil. Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Histology and Embryology Department, Çapa, Istanbul, Turkey. E-mail:


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Present address: Bezmialem University Hospital, IVF Centre, Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey.



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