Skip to main content Accessibility help

Initial development of Prochilodus hartii (Pisces: Prochilodontidae) submitted to induced reproduction

  • Tiago Figueiredo Abdo (a1), Paulo Brant Perrotti (a1), Wesley Antunes Meireles (a2) and Nilo Bazzoli (a3)


The Prochilodontidae prepare for reproduction in captivity, but neither ovulation nor spawning occurs, thus requiring induced reproduction for breeding and restocking. This study analyzed for the first time the embryogenesis and larval ontogeny of P. hartii submitted to induced reproduction by hypophysation with crude common carp pituitary extract. The extrusion of oocytes and sperm was performed manually and fertilization was done using the dry method. After fertilization, the eggs were kept in incubators at 23°C. A stereomicroscope was used to measure egg diameter and to monitor embryo development. Samples of larvae were collected daily for 7 days for histological and biometric analyses. The recently extruded oocytes, non-hydrated, are spherical, grey, and non-adhesive with a diameter of 1480 ± 39 μm and after hydration, have a diameter of 2860 ± 120 μm. The positive response to hypophysation was 100% for females and 80% for males. Spawning occurred 7 h after the third hormonal dosage. The fertilization rate was 77% at 23°C. Blastopore closure occurred at 6 h 45 min and embryonic development was completed 36 h 10 min after fertilization. After 204 h post fertilization (hpf) the larvae reached a standard length of 6.56 ± 0.14 mm with the yolk sac completely resorbed. In P. hartii, the oral cavity opening occurred 132 hpf. The results of this study provide knowledge to better understand induced reproduction, breeding, and management of P. hartii, a species with a high potential for pisciculture, and which is commercially important in the Jequitinhonha River basin.


Corresponding author

All correspondence to: Nilo Bazzoli. Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia de Vertebrados, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Av. Dom José Gaspar, 500 - Coração Eucarístico, CEP 30535–901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Tel: +55 31 33194936. Fax: +55 31 33194269. e-mail:


Hide All
Andrade-Talmelli, E.F., Kavamoto, E.T., Romagosa, E. & Fenerich-Verani, N. (2001). Embryonic and larval development of the ‘piabanha’, Brycon insignis, Steindachner, 1876 (Pisces, Characidae). Bol. Inst. Pesca 27, 21–8.
Amorim, M.P., Gomes, B.V.C., Gomes, Y.S., Sato, M.M.P., Gomes, B.V.C., Martins, Y.S., Sato, Y., Rizzo, E. & Bazzoli, N. (2009). Early development of the silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Pisces: Heptapteridae) from the Saõ Francisco River Basin, Brazil. Aquacult. Res. 40, 172–80.
Arantes, F.P., Santos, H.B., Rizzo, E., Sato, Y. & Bazzoli, N. (2011). Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the ‘curimatã-pacu’ Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 172, 400–8.
Arantes, F.P., Sato, Y., Sampaio, E.V., Rizzo, E. & Bazzoli, N. (2013). Spawning induction and fecundity of commercial native fish species from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil, under hatchery conditions. Agricult. Sci. 8, 382–8.
Baras, E., Ndao, M., Maxi, M.Y.J., Jeandrain, D., Thome, J.P., Vandewalle, P. & Melard, C. (2000). Sibling cannibalism in dorada under experimental conditions. I. Ontogeny, dynamics, bioenergetics of cannibalism and prey size selectivity. J. Fish Biol. 57, 1001–20.
Borçato, F.L., Bazzoli, N. & Sato, Y. (2004). Embryogenesis and ontogeny of the ‘piau–gordura, Leporinus piau (Fowler) (Pisces, Anostomidae) after induced spawning. Rev. Bras. Zool. 21, 117–22.
Castro, R.M.C. & Vari, R.P. Family Prochilodontidae. (2003). In Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America (eds Reis, R.E., Kullander, S.O. & Ferraris, C.J. Jr) pp. 66–8. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS.
Crim, L.W. & Bettles, S. (1997). Use of GnRHa analogues in fish culture. Recent Advances in Marine Biotechnology, Endocrinology and Reproduction (eds Fingerman, M., Nagabhushanam, R. & Thompson, M.F.), pp. 369–82. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.
Flecker, A.S. (1996). Ecosystem engineering by a dominant detritovore in a diverse tropical stream. Ecology 77, 1845–54.
Godinho, A.L. & Kynard, B. (2006). Migration and spawning of radiotagged zulega Prochilodus argenteus in a dammed Brazilian river. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 135, 811–24.
Godinho, H.P., Santos, J.E. & Sato, Y. (2003). Ontogênese larval de cinco espécies de peixes do São Francisco. In Águas, peixes e pescadores do São Francisco das Minas Gerais (eds. Godinho, H.P. & Godinho, A.L.), pp. 133148. Belo Horizonte, Editora PUC Minas.
Godinho, A.L., Lamas, I.R. & Godinho, H.P. (2010). Reproductive ecology of Brazilian freshwater fishes. Environ. Biol. Fish. 87, 143–62.
Gomes, B.V.C., Scarpelli, R.S., Arantes, F.P., Sato, Y., Bazzoli, N. & Rizzo, E. (2007). Comparative oocyte morphology and early development in three species of trahiras from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil. J. Fish Biol. 70, 1412–29.
Gomes, R.Z., Sato, Y., Rizzo, E. & Bazzoli, N. (2013). Early development of Brycon orthotaenia (Pisces: Characidae). Zygote 21, 1120.
Guimarães-Cruz, R.J., Santos, J.E., Sato, Y. & Veloso-Júnior, V.C. (2009). Early development stages of the catfish Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1877 (Pisces: Pseudopimelodidae) from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 25, 321–7.
Kolm, N. & Ahnesjö, I. (2005). Do egg size and parental care coevolve in fishes? J. Fish Biol. 66, 1499–515.
Langeland, J.A. & Kimmel, C.B. (1997). Fishes. In Constructing the Organism (eds Gilbert, S.F. & Ramio, A.M.), pp. 383407. Sunderland: Sinauer.
Lubzens, E., Young, G., Bobe, J. & Cerdà, J. (2010). Oogenesis in teleosts: how fish eggs are formed. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 165, 367–89.
Marques, C., Nakaghi, L.S.O., Faustino, F., Ganeco, L.N. & Senhorini, J.A. (2008). Observations of the embryonic development in Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) under light and scanning electron microscopy. Zygote 16, 333–42.
Mylonas, C.C. & Zohar, Y. (2001). Use of GnRHa-delivery systems for the control of reproduction in fish. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish 10, 463–91.
Mylonas, C.C., Fostier, A. & Zanuy, S. (2010). Broodstock management and hormonal manipulations of fish reproduction. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 165, 516–34.
Ninhaus-Silveira, A., Foresti, F. & De Azevedo, A. (2006). Structural and ultrastructural analysis of embryonic development of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae). Zygote 14, 217–29.
Ninhaus-Silveira, A., Foresti, F., De Azevedo, A., Agostinho, C.A. & Veríssimo-Silveira, R. (2007). Structural and ultrastructural characteristics of the yolk syncytial layer in Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) (Teleostei; Prochilodontidae). Zygote 15, 267–71.
Oka, S.I. & Higashiji, T. (2012). Early ontogeny of the big roughy Gephyroberyx japonicus (Beryciformes: Trachichthyidae) in captivity. Ichthyol. Res. 59, 282–5.
Osse, J.W.M., Van Den Boogaart, J.G.M., Van Snik, G.M.J. & Vander Sluys, L. (1997). Priorities during early growth of fish larvae. Aquaculture 155, 249–58.
Perini, V.R., Sato, Y., Rizzo, E. & Bazzoli, N. (2010). Biology of eggs, embryos and larvae of Rhinelepis aspera (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) (Pisces: Siluriformes). Zygote 18, 159–71.
Perini, V.R., Sato, Y., Rizzo, E. & Bazzoli, N. (2013). Comparative analyses of the oocytes and early development of two species of Curimatidae teleost fish. Anat. Histol. Embryol. 40, 40–7.
Reynalte-Tataje, D.A., Lopes, C.A., Ávila-Simas, S., Garcia, J.R.E. & Zaniboni-Filho, E. (2013). Artificial reproduction of neotropical fish: extrusion or natural spawning? Nat. Sci. 5, 16.
Sanches, P.V., Nakatani, K. & Bialetzki, A., (1999). Morphological description of the developmental stages of Parauchenipterus galeatus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae) on the floodplain of the upper Paraná river. Rev. Bras. Biol. 59, 429–38.
Sato, Y., Cardoso, E.L., Godinho, A.L. & Godinho, H.P. (1996). Hypophysation of the fish Prochilodus affinis from the Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. 48, 5562.
Sato, Y., Fenerich-Verani, N., Verani, J.R., Vieira, L.J.S. & Godinho, H.P. (2000). Induced reproductive responses of the neotropical anostomids fish Leporinus elongatus Val. under captive breeding. Aquacult. Res. 11, 189–93.
Sato, Y., Fenerich-Verani, N., Nuñer, A.P.O., Godinho, H.P. & Verani, J.R. (2003a). Padrões reprodutivos de peixes da bacia do São Francisco. In: Águas, peixes e pescadores do São Francisco das Minas Gerais (Godinho, H.P. & Godinho, A.L., eds) pp. 229274. Belo Horizonte, CNPq/PADCT, Editora PUC Minas.
Sato, Y., Fenerich-Verani, N. & Godinho, H.P (2003b). Reprodução induzida de peixes da bacia do São Francisco. In Águas, Peixes e Pescadores do São Francisco das Minas Gerais (eds Godinho, H.P. & Godinho, A.L.), pp. 275–89. Belo Horizonte: CNPq/PADCT, Editora PUC Minas.
Sugumar, V. & Munuswamy, N. (2006). Induction of population growth, mictic female production and body size by treatment of a synthetic GnRH analogue in the freshwater rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas. Aquaculture 258, 529–34.
Weber, A.A., Sato, Y., Santos, J.E., Rizzo, E. & Bazzoli, N. (2012). Eggs ultrastructure and early development of Franciscodoras marmoratus (Pisces: Doradidae). Anat. Histol. Embryol. 41, 177–83.
Woynarovich, E. & Horváth, L. (1980). The artificial propagation of warm-water finfishes – a manual for extension. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 201, 183.
Zaniboni-Filho, E., Reynalte-Tataje, D. & Weingartner, M. (2006). Potencialidad del gênero Brycon en la piscicultura brasileña. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias 19, 233–40.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed