Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Enhancing the nutritional value of soybeans for poultry through supplementation with new-generation feed enzymes

  • M.M. ERDAW (a1) (a2), M.M. BHUIYAN (a1) and P.A. IJI (a1)

Abstract

Soybean meal (SBM) remains the most important and preferred protein feed source for poultry. However, the supply and quality of SBM fluctuates, and the meal is expensive due to processing and transportation costs. Although there is a growing interest in the use of raw SBM for birds, its nutritive value is negatively affected by the presence of anti-nutritive factors (ANF). Heat treatment is applied to alleviate some ANF, such as trypsin inhibitors and lectins, but both under- and over-processing of soybeans can reduce the digestibility of key components in the meal. Feed supplementation with exogenous enzymes, such as phytase and protease enzymes, is a biotechnological option for improving the nutritional values of SBM and other protein-rich ingredients. Proteases break down both stored proteins and proteinaceous anti-nutrients in feeds. Various studies have shown that the performance of birds can be improved through dietary supplementation with new-generation protease enzymes. Phytase is also effective in breaking down phytate (phytic acid), which chelates with mineral cations and other nutrients in soybeans. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that an enzyme cocktail (combined use of protease and phytase) is more effective in reducing ANF in soybean meal for birds than the use of single enzyme products. This review provides information on how microbial enzymes, particularly protease and phytase, contribute to the improvement of the nutritional values of different types of SBM for poultry.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author: piji@une.edu.au or leulmammo@yahoo.com

References

Hide All
ABUDABOS, A. (2010) Enzyme supplementation of corn-soybean meal diets improves performance in broiler chicken. International Journal of Poultry Science 9: 292-297.
ADEOLA, O. and SANDS, J. (2003) Does supplemental dietary microbial phytase improve amino acid utilisation? A perspective that it does not. Journal of Animal Science 81: E78-E85.
ALETOR, V.A. and OLONIMOYO, F.I. (1992) Feeding differently processed soya bean Part 1. Effect on performance, protein utilization, relative organ weights, carcass traits and economics of producing broiler-chickens. Food/Nahrung 36: 357-363.
AMERAH, A., GILBERT, C., SIMMINS, P. and RAVINDRAN, V. (2011) Influence of fee processing on the efficacy of exogenous enzymes in broiler diets. World's Poultry Science Journal 67: 29-46.
ANGEL, C., SAYLOR, W., VIEIRA, S. and WARD, N. (2011) Effects of a monocomponent protease on performance and protein utilisation in 7-to 22-day-old broiler chickens. Poultry Science 90: 2281-2286.
ARABA, M. and DALE, N. (1990) Evaluation of protein solubility as an indicator of overprocessing soybean meal. Poultry Science 69: 76-83.
AO, T. (2011) Using exogenous enzymes to increase the nutritional value of soybean meal in poultry diet, in: EL-SHEMY, H. (Ed) Soybean and nutrition, pp. 201-214 (InTech, Rijeka, Croatia).
ASA (AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOCIATION) SOY STATS (1997) A reference guide to important soybean facts and figures. American Soybean Association, USA, pp. 45.
ASA (AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOCIATION) (2004) Whole soybeans in diets for poultry. Available online: http://www.thepoultrysite.com/articles/194/whole-soybeans-in-diets-for-poultry 2014.
ASYIFAH, M., ABD-AZIZ, S., PHANG, L. and AZLIAN, M. (2012) Brown rice as a potential feedstuff for poultry. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 21: 103-110.
BAMGBOSE, A., AWOSANYA, O., OJO, O. and OSO, A. (2005) Performance of broilers fed enzyme-supplemented tigernut (Cyperus rotundus L.) meal diets. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science 38: 89-93.
BANASZKIEWICZ, T. (2011) Nutritional value of soybean meal, in: EL-SHEMY, H.A. (Ed) Soybean and nutrition, pp. 1-20 (InTech, Rijeka, Croatia).
BARLETTA, A. (2011) Introduction: current market and expected developments, in: BEDFORD, M.R. & PARTRIDGE, G.G. (Eds) Enzymes in farm animal nutrition, pp. 1-11 (CABI, Wallingford, UK).
BARTH, C.A., LUNDING, B., SCHMITZ, M. and HAGEMEISTER, H. (1993) Soybean trypsin inhibitor (s) reduce absorption of exogenous and increase loss of endogenous protein in miniature pigs. The Journal of Nutrition 123: 2195-2200.
CABAHUG, S., RAVINDRAN, V., SELLE, P. and BRYDEN, W. (1999) Response of broiler chickens to microbial phytase supplementation as influenced by dietary phytic acid and non-phytate phosphorus contents. I. Effects on bird performance and toe ash. British Poultry Science 40: 660-666.
CAMPBELL, L. and SCHÖNE, F. (1998) Effects of antinutritional factors in rapeseed. Publication-European Association for Animal Production 93: 185-198.
CECCANTINI, M. and MONTANHINI, R.N. (2011) Evaluation of a carbohydrolase in corn/soybean-based diets for broilers. XXII Latin American Poultry Congress 2011. Available online: http://en.engormix.com/MA-poultry-industry/nutrition/articles/evaluation-carbohydrolase-corn-soybean-t1861/141-p0.htm.
CHEN, Y., DUAN, W., WANG, L., ZHANG, S. and ZHOU, Y. (2013) Effects of thermostable phytase supplementation on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science 12: 441-444.
CHOCT, M., DERSJANT-LI, Y., MCLEISH, J. and PEISKER, M. (2010) Soy oligosaccharides and soluble non-starch polysaccharides: a review of digestion, nutritive and anti-nutritive effects in pigs and poultry. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science 23: 1386-1398.
CLARKE, E. and WISEMAN, J. (2005) Effects of variability in trypsin inhibitor content of soya bean meals on true and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and pancreas size in broiler chicks. Animal Feed Science and Technology 121: 125-138.
CLEMENTE, A., JIMENEZ, E., MARIN-MANZANO, M.C. and RUBIO, L.A. (2008) Active Bowman-Birk inhibitors survive gastrointestinal digestion at the terminal ileum of pigs fed chickpea-based diets. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture 88: 513-521.
COWIESON, A. and ADEOLA, O. (2005) Carbohydrases, protease, and phytase have an additive beneficial effect in nutritionally marginal diets for broiler chicks. Poultry Science 84: 1860-1867.
COWIESON, A. and RAVINDRAN, V. (2008) Effect of exogenous enzymes in maize-based diets varying in nutrient density for young broilers: growth performance and digestibility of energy, minerals and amino acids. British Poultry Science 49: 37-44.
CROWELL, G.L. (2012) Soybean meal. An exceptional protein source. Available online: http://www.soymeal.org/ReviewPapers/SBMExceptionalProteinSource.pdf.
DEI, H.K. (2011) Soybean as a feed ingredient for livestock and poultry, in: DORA KREZHOVA (Ed) Recent trends for enhancing the diversity and quality of soybean products, pp. 215-216 (InTech, Rijeka, Croatia).
DIPIETRO, C.M. and LIENER, I.E. (1989) Heat inactivation of the Kunitz and Bowman-Birk soybean protease inhibitors. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 37: 39-44.
DOURADO, L.R.B., PASCOAL, L.A.F., SAKOMURA, N.K., COSTA, F.G.P. and BIAGIOTTI, D. (2011) Soybeans (Glycine max) and soybean products in poultry and swine nutrition, in: DORA KREZHOVA (Ed) Recent Trends for Enhancing the Diversity and Quality of Soybean Products, pp. 175-190 (InTech, Rijeka, Croatia).
ERDAW, M.E., PEREZ-MALDONADO, R.A., BHUIYAN, M.M. and IJI, P.A. (2015a) Response of broiler chicks fed on steam- or cold-pelleted diets containing raw full-fat soybean meal. 20th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, 24-27 August 2015, Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 179-180.
ERDAW, M.E., PEREZ-MALDONADO, R.A., BHUIYAN, M.M. and IJI, P.A. (2015b) Replacement value of raw full-fat soybean for commercial soybean meal supplemented with a new-generation protease. 20th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, 24-27 August 2015, Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 418-419.
FAO (2014) Protein sources for the animal feed industry. proceedings: FAO Expert consultation and workshop Bangkok 2014 held in 29 April - 3 May 2002, Bangkok.
FREITAS, D., VIEIRA, S., ANGEL, C., FAVERO, A. and MAIORKA, A. (2011) Performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers fed diets supplemented with a novel mono-component protease. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 20: 322-334.
GHAZI, A., ZOHAIR, G.A., AL-MAKTARI, MOHAMED and AMER, M. (2012) A comparative effect of mash and pellet feed on broiler performance and ascites at high altitude. Global Veterinarian 9: 154-159.
GRIESHOP, C.M., KADZERE, C.T., CLAPPER, G.M., FLICKINGER, E.A., BAUER, L.L., FRAZIER, R.L. and FAHEY, G.C. (2003) Chemical and nutritional characteristics of United States soybeans and SBM. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 51: 7684-7691.
GU, C., PAN, H., SUN, Z. and QIN, G. (2010) Effect of soybean variety on anti-nutritional factors content, and growth performance and nutrients metabolism in rat. International Journal of Molecular Science 11: 1048-1056.
HAJATI, H. (2010) Effects of enzyme supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, carcass composition and some blood parameters of broiler chicken. American Journal of Animal Veterinary Science 5: 221.
HEUZÉ, V., TRAN, G. and KAUSHIK, S. (2015) Soybean meal. Feedipedia.org: A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Available online: http://www.feedipedia.org/node/674.
JEZIERNY, D., MOSENTHIN, R. and BAUER, E. (2010) The use of grain legumes as a protein source in pig nutrition: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 157: 111-128.
JIANG, Z., ZHOU, Y., LU, F., HAN, Z. and WANG, T. (2008) Effects of different levels of supplementary alpha-amylase on digestive enzyme activities and pancreatic amylase mRNA expression of young broilers. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science 21: 97-102.
JOHRI, T.S. (2005) Endogenous and exogenous feed toxins, in: Poultry nutrition research in India and its perspective. Available online: http://www.fao.org/docrep/article/agrippa/659_en-10.htm.
KARR-LILIENTHAL, L., KADZERE, C., GRIESHOP, C. and FAHEY, J.R. (2005) Chemical and nutritional properties of soybean carbohydrates as related to nonruminants: A review. Livestock Production Science 97: 1-12.
KASHANI, S., MOHEBBIFAR, A., HABIBIAN, M. and TORKI, M. (2014) Effects of phytase supplementation of low protein diets on performance, egg quality traits and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens. Annual Research Review in Biology 4: 684-698.
KOCHER, A., CHOCT, M., PORTER, M. and BROZ, J. (2002) Effects of feed enzymes on nutritive value of soyabean meal fed to broilers. British Poultry Science 43: 54-63.
LALL, S.P. (1991) Digestibility, metabolism and excretion of dietary phosphorus, in: COWEY, C.B. & CHO, C.Y. (Eds) Nutritional Strategies and Aquaculture Waste. Proceeding of the 1st International Symposium of Nutritional Strategies in Management of Aquaculture Waste. Guelph, Ontario, pp. 77-90.
LIENER, I.E. (1994) Implications of antinutritional components in soybean foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 34: 31-67.
LIENER, I.E. (1995) Possible adverse effects of soybean anticarcinogens. The Journal of Nutrition 125 (Suppl.): 744S- 744S-750S.
LIU, B.L., RAFIQ, A., TZENG, Y.M. and ROB, A. (1998) The induction and characterization of phytase and beyond. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 22: 415-424.
LIU, S., SELLE, P., COURT, S. and COWIESON, A. (2013) Protease supplementation of sorghum-based broiler diets enhances amino acid digestibility coefficients in four small intestinal sites and accelerates their rates of digestion. Animal Feed Science and Technology 183: 175-183.
LOKURUKA, M. (2011) Effects of processing on soybean nutrients and potential impact on consumer health: an overview. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 11: Available online: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajfand.v11i4.69170.
MACISAAC, J., BURGOYNE, K., ANDERSON, D. and RATHGEBER, B. (2005) Roasted full-fat soybeans in starter, grower, and finisher diets for female broiler turkeys. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14: 116-121.
MCDONALD, P., GREENHALGH, J.F.D., EDWARDS, R. and MORGAN, C.A. (2002) Animal nutrition. 6th edit. Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE, England, pp. 525-378.
MENG, X., SLOMINSKI, B., CAMPBELL, L., GUENTER, W. and JONES, O. (2006) The use of enzyme technology for improved energy utilisation from full-fat oilseeds. Part I: Canola seed. Poultry Science 85:1025-1030.
MOGRIDGE, J., SMITH, T. and SOUSADIAS, M. (1996) Effect of feeding raw soybeans on polyamine metabolism in chicks and the therapeutic effect of exogenous putrescine. Journal of Animal Science 74: 1897-1904.
MOJTABA, Y. (2008) Feed processing in the poultry industry. Available online: http://www.worldpoultry.net/Home/General/2008/10/Feed-processing-in-the-poultry-industry-WP003217W/.
MOURE, A., SINEIRO, J., DOMÍNGUEZ, H. and PARAJÓ, J.C. (2006) Functionality of oilseed protein products: A review. Food Research International 39: 945-963.
MURUGESAN, G.R., ROMERO, L.F. and PERSIA, M.E. (2014) Effects of protease, phytase and a bacillus sp. direct-fed microbial on nutrient and energy digestibility, ileal brush border digestive enzyme activity and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentration in broiler chickens. PloS one 9: DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101888.
NAHASHON, S.N. and KILONZO-NTHENGE, A.K. (2013) Soybean in Monogastric Nutrition: Modifications to Add Value and Disease Prevention Properties, in: EL-SHEMY, H.A. (Ed) Soybean - Bio-Active Compounds, pp. 309-352 (In Tech Rijeka, Croatia).
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (1994) Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
NEWKIRK, R. (2010) Soybean. Feed industry guide,1st edition Canadian International Grains Institute, pp.48. Available online: http://www.cigi.ca/feed.htm.
OIL-WORLD (2010) Major meals, world summary balances. Oil world weekly 55: 45. Available online: http://www.feedipedia.org/node/3020.
O'QUINN, P., KNABE, D., GREGG, E. and LUSAS, E. (1997) Nutritional value for swine of soybean meal produced by isopropyl alcohol extraction. Journal of Animal Science 75: 714-719.
OMOJOLA, A. and ADESEHINWA, A. (2007) Supplemented with Graded Levels of Roxazyme G®. International Journal of Poultry Science 6: 335-339.
OXENBOLL, K., PONTOPPIDAN, K. and FRU-NJI, F. (2011) Use of a protease in poultry feed offers promising environmental benefits. International Journal of Poultry Science 10: 842-848.
PAHM, S. and STEIN, H. (2007) Ileal AA digestibility of a new high protein variety of soybeans fed to growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 85 (Suppl. 2): abstract.
PALACIOS, M., EASTER, R., SOLTWEDEL, K., PARSONS, C., DOUGLAS, M., HYMOWITZ, T. and PETTIGREW, J. (2004) Effect of soybean variety and processing on growth performance of young chicks and pigs. Journal of Animal Science 82: 1108-1114.
PALLAUF, J. and RIMBACH, G. (1997) Nutritional significance of phytic acid and phytase. Archives Animal Nutrition 50: 301-319.
PEREZ-MALDONADO, R., MANNION, P. and FARRELL, D. (2003) Effects of heat treatment on the nutritional value of raw soybean selected for low trypsin inhibitor activity. British Poultry Science 44: 299-308.
PETER, C.M. and BAKER, D.H. (2001) Microbial phytase does not improve protein-amino acid utilisation in soybean meal fed to young chickens. Journal of Nutrition 131: 1792-1797.
PETER, C.M. and BAKER, D.H. (2001) Bioavailability of phosphorus in corn gluten feed derived from conventional and low-phytate maize. Animal Feed Sciences & Technology 95: 63-71.
PETTERSSON, D. and PONTOPPIDAN, K. (2013) Soybean meal and the potential for upgrading its feeding value by enzyme supplementation, in: EL-SHEMY, A. (Ed) Soybean - Bio-Active Compounds, pp. 288-307 (Intech, Open Access Publisher).
PETTIGREW, J.E., SOLTWEDEL, K.T., MIGUEL, J.C. and PALACIOS, M.F. (2008) Fact sheet - Soybean use for swine. soybean meal information centre. Available online: http://www.soymeal.org/FactSheets/SwineSoybeanUse.pdf.
PIERSON, E., POTTER, L. and BROWN, R. (1980) Amino acid digestibility of dehulled soybean meal by adult turkeys. Poultry Science 59: 845-848.
RABOY, V. (2009) Approaches and challenges to engineering seed phytate and total phosphorus. Plant Science 177: 281-296.
RADA, V., LICHOVNIKOVA, M. and FOLTYN, M. (2014) The effect of serine protease on broiler growth and carcass quality. Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica 17: 87-89.
RAVINDRAN, V. (2013) The role of poultry in human nutrition, in: FAO. Poultry Development Review, pp.1-8. Available online : http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3531e.pdf.
RAVINDRAN, V., SELLE, P. and BRYDEN, W. (1999) Effects of phytase supplementation, individually and in combination, with glycanase, on the nutritive value of wheat and barley. Poultry Science 78: 1588-1595.
RAVINDRAN, V., ABDOLLAHI, M. and BOOTWALLA, S. (2014a) Nutrient analysis, apparent metabolisable energy and ileal amino acid digestibility of full fat soybean for broilers. Animal Feed Science and Technology 197: 233-240.
RAVINDRAN, V., ABDOLLAHI, M.R. and BOOTWALLA, S.M. (2014b) Nutrient analysis, metabolizable energy, and digestible amino acids of soybean meals of different origins for broilers. Poultry science 93: 2567-2577.
REZAEI, M., BORBOR, S., ZAGHARI, M. and TEIMOURI, A. (2007) Effect of Phytase supplementation on nutrients availability and performance of broiler chicks. International Journal of Poultry Science 6: 55-58.
ROMERO, L. and PLUMSTEAD, P. (2013) Bio-efficacy of feed proteases in poultry and their interaction with other feed enzymes. 24Th Annual Australian Poultry Science Symposium. Sydney, New South Wales 17th -20th February 2013.
RUIZ, N., DE BELALCAZAR, F. and DIAZ, G. (2004) Quality control parameters for commercial full-fat soybeans processed by two different methods and fed to broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 13: 443-450.
SANTOS, F., HRUBY, M., PIERSON, E., REMUS, J. and SAKOMURA, N. (2008) Effect of phytase supplementation in diets on nutrient digestibility and performance in broiler chicks. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 17: 191-201.
SELL, J.L., TENESACA, L.G. and BALES, G.L. (1979) Influence of dietary fat on energy utilisation by laying hens. Poultry Science 58: 900-905.
SELLE, P., CADOGAN, D., RU, Y. and PARTRIDGE, G. (2010) Impact of exogenous enzymes in sorghum-or wheat-based broiler diets on nutrient utilisation and growth performance. International Journal of Poultry Science 9: 53-58.
SELLE, P., RAVINDRAN, V., CALDWELL, A. and BRYDEN, W. (2000) Phytate and phytase: consequences for protein utilisation. Nutrition Research Reviews 13: 255-278.
SELLE, P., RAVINDRAN, V., RAVINDRAN, G., PITTOLO, P. and BRYDEN, W. (2003) Influence of phytase and xylanase supplementation on growth performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers offered wheat-based diets. Asia-Australian Journal of Animal Science 16: 394-402.
SELLE, P.H. and RAVINDRAN, V. (2007) Microbial phytase in poultry nutrition. Animal Feed Science and Technology 135: 1-41.
SELLE, P., LIU, S.Y., CAI, J. and COWIESON, A. (2013) Steam-pelleting temperatures, grain variety, feed form and protease supplementation of mediumly ground, sorghum-based broiler diets: influences on growth performance, relative gizzard weights, nutrient utilisation, starch and nitrogen digestibility. Animal Production Science 53: 378-387.
SENKOYLU, N., SAMLI, H.E., AKYUREK, H., AGMA, A. and YASAR, S. (2005) Use of high levels of full-fat soybeans in laying hen diets. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14: 32-37.
SERRANO, M.P., VALENCIA, D.G., MENDEZ, J. and MATEOS, G.G. (2012) Influence of feed form and source of soybean meal of the diet on growth performance of broilers from 1 to 32 days of age. Poultry Science 81: 2838-2844.
SHARMA, S., GOYAL, R. and BARWAL, S. (2013) Domestic processing effects on physicochemical, nutritional and anti-nutritional attributes in soybean (Glycine max L. Merill). International Food Research Journal 20: 3203-3209.
SHARMA, S., KAUR, M., GOYAL, R. and GILL, B.S. (2014) Physical characteristics and nutritional composition of some new soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) genotypes. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51: 551-557.
SHI, S., LU, J., TONG, H., ZOU, J. and WANG, K. (2012) Effects of graded replacement of soybean meal by sunflower seed meal in laying hen diets on hen performance, egg quality, egg fatty acid composition, and cholesterol content. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 21: 367-374.
SINGH, P. (2008) Significance of phytic acid and supplemental phytase in chicken nutrition: A review. World's Poultry Science Journal 64: 553-580.
SOYA-TECH (2003) Whole soybeans as food ingredient. Available online: http://www.soyatech.com/pdf/wholesoyorder.pdf.
SRINATH, K., RAVINDER, R.V., KONDAL, R.K., MALLIKARJUNA, P.V.R., CHINNI, P.V. and REDDY, M.R. (2012) Effect of Supplementation of Cornsoya Pelleted Diets With Encapsulated Feed Enzymes on Performance of Broilers. International Journal of Food, Agriculture and Veterinary Science 2: 115-127.
STEIN, H.H., BERGER, L.L., DRACKLEY, J.K., FAHEY, J.RG., HERNOT, D.C. and PARSONS, C.M. (2008) Nutritional properties and feeding values of soybeans and their coproducts, in: JOHNSON, A., WHITE, P.J. & GALLOWAY, R. (Eds) Soybeans, Chemistry, Production, Processing, And Utilisation, pp. 613-660 (AOCS Press, Urbana, IL, USA).
VAN EYS, J., OFFNER, A. and BACH, A. (2004) Analysis. Manual of quality analysis for soybean products in the feed industry. Available online: http://www.asa-europe.org/Library/library_e.htm.
VAN HARN, J. and VELDKAMP, T. (2011) Pig MBM in broiler feed did not meet expectations. All about Feed 2: 24-26.
VIEIRA, S., OTT, R., BERRES, J., OLMOS, A., CONEGLIAN, J. and FREITAS, D. (2006) Effects of a mix of carbohydrases on live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed all vegetable diets based on corn and soybean meal. International Journal of Poultry Science 5: 662-665.
WILLIS, S. (2003) The use of soybean meal and full fat soybean meal by the animal feed industry. 12th Australian Soybean Conference, Toowomba, Australia 12: 1-8.
WOODWORTH, J., TOKASH, M., GOODBAND, R., NELSSEN, J., O'QUINN, P., KNABE, D. and SAID, N.I. (2001) Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the digestible and metabolizable energy content of dry extruded-expelled soybean meal and its effect on growth performance of pigs. Journal of Animal Science 79: 1280-1287.
WOYENGO, T., SLOMINSKI, B. and JONES, R. (2010) Growth performance and nutrient utilisation of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with phytase alone or in combination with citric acid and multicarbohydrase. Poultry Science 89: 2221-2229.
YADAV, J. and SAH, R. (2005) Supplementation of Corn-Soybean Based Broiler's Diets with Different Levels of Acid Protease. Journal of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science 26: 65-70.
ZDUNCZYK, Z., JANKOWSKI, J., JUSKIEWICZ, J. and SLOMINSKI, B. (2011) Dietary Content and Gastrointestinal Function of Soybean Oligosaccharides in Monogastric Animals, in: TZI-BUN, N.G. (Ed) Soybean - Biochemistry, Chemistry and Physiology, pp. 523-540 (InTech).

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed