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This paper reviews previous studies on metamaterials and its application to wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies, as well as discussing about development opportunities and technical challenges for the contactless charging of electric vehicles (EVs). The EV establishes a bridge between sustainable energies and our daily transportation, especially the park-and-charge and move-and-charge for EVs have attracted increasing attentions from the academia and the industry. However, the metamaterials-based WPT has been nearly unexplored specifically for EVs by now. Accordingly, this paper gives an overview for the metamaterial-based WPT technologies, with emphasizes on enhancing efficiency, increasing distance, improving misalignment tolerance, and compacting size. From the perspective of EV wireless charging, this paper discusses about the breakthrough to current WPT technique bottlenecks and prospective EV charging scenarios by utilizing the left-handed material. Meanwhile, the technical issues to be addressed are also summarized in this paper, which aims to arouse emerging research topics for the future development of EV wireless charging systems.
In this paper, an experimental study is carried out while charging the sealed lead acid battery bank using a series-parallel (SP) compensated contactless power transfer (CPT) system. Constant current (CC) and constant voltage (CV) modes are used for charging the battery bank. An expression of optimum operating frequency is derived to maintain the maximum compensated coil efficiency throughout the load variation in charging process. An experimental setup of SP compensated CPT system is built for charging the battery bank. The variation of compensated coil efficiency and the load phase angle with respect to different operating frequencies in CC and CV modes is verified with the measurement. Based on the analysis, the control parameters are identified.
This paper deals with the numerical evaluation of the magnetic field emitted by a wireless power system (WPT) in an electric vehicle (EV). The numerical investigation is carried out using a finite element method (FEM) code with a transition boundary condition (TBC) to model conductive materials. First, the TBC has been validated by comparison with the exact solution in simple computational domains with conductive panels at frequencies used in WPT automotive. Then, the FEM with TBC has been used to predict the field in an electric car assuming the chassis made by three different materials: steel, aluminum, and fiber composite. The magnetic field source is given by a WPT system with 7.7 kW power level operating at frequencies of 85 or 150 kHz. The calculated magnetic field has been compared with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference level demonstrating compliance for an EV with metallic (steel or aluminum) chassis. On the contrary, a fiber composite chassis is much more penetrable by magnetic fields and the reference level is exceeded.
As battery capacities become suitable for the mass market, there is an increasing demand on technologies to charge electric vehicles. Wireless charging is regarded as the most promising technique for automatic and convenient charging. Especially in publicly accessible parking spaces, foreign objects are able to enter the large air gap between the charging coils easily. Since the evoked magnetic field does not meet regulations, wireless charging systems are demanded to take further precautions related to the protection of endangered objects. Thus, additional sensors are required to protect primarily living objects by preventing them from being exposed to the magnetic field. In this paper, we propose a new approach for monitoring the air gap under the vehicle underbody using an automotive radar sensor on the vehicle side. The concept feasibility is evaluated with the help of a prototypical implementation. Further, two-dimensional signal processing techniques are applied to meet the requirements of inductive charging systems. Consequently, this paper provides measurement data for relevant use cases frequently discussed in the community of inductive charging.