Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Weed Seed Production as Influenced by Glyphosate Applications at Flowering Across a Weed Complex

  • Eric R. Walker (a1) and Lawrence R. Oliver (a1)

Abstract

Late-season weed infestations often do not affect yields and are allowed to mature and contribute seed to the soil seedbank, ensuring the future establishment of competitive weed complexes. Effective long-term weed management strategies must incorporate practices to reduce late-season weed seed production by weed complexes. Field studies were conducted to determine the effects of late-season glyphosate applications on seed production of barnyardgrass, Palmer amaranth, pitted morningglory, prickly sida, and sicklepod. Although sequential 0.42-kg ae/ha glyphosate applications initiated when the first weed species in the complex flowered and repeated every 10 d was the most effective treatment and reduced seed production of all species by ≥ 95%, the most practical treatment was a single 0.84-kg/ha glyphosate application at pitted morningglory flowering, suppressing seed production of barnyardgrass, Palmer amaranth, pitted morningglory, prickly sida, and sicklepod by 88, 83, 98, 95, and 99%, respectively. This research demonstrates that annual contributions by a weed complex to the soil seedbank can be significantly and practically reduced by a single late-season glyphosate application.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: ewalker@ars.usda.gov

References

Hide All
Abeles, F. B. and Leather, G. R. 1971. Abscission: control of cellulase secretion by ethylene. Planta. 97:8791.
Abu-Irmaileh, B. E., Jordan, L. S., and Kumamoto, J. 1979. Enhancement of CO2 and ethylene production and cellulase activity glyphosate in Phaseolus vulgaris . Weed Sci. 27:103106.
Ahmadi, M. S., Haderlie, L. C., and Wicks, G. A. 1980. Effect of growth stage and water stress on barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) control and on glyphosate absorption and translocation. Weed Sci. 28:277282.
Baig, M. N., Darwent, A. L., Harker, K. N., and O'Donovan, J. T. 2003. Preharvest applications of glyphosate affect emergence and seedling growth of field pea (Pisum sativum). Weed Technol. 17:655665.
Bennett, A. C. and Shaw, D. R. 2000. Effect of preharvest desiccants on weed seed production and viability. Weed Technol. 14:530538.
Booth, B. D. and Swanton, C. J. 2002. Assembly theory applied to weed complexes. Weed Sci. 50:213.
Bond, J. A. and Oliver, L. R. 2006. Comparative growth of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) accessions. Weed Sci. 54:121126.
Buhler, D. D., Hartzler, R. G., and Forcella, F. 1997. Implications of weeds seedbank dynamics to weed management. Weed Sci. 45:329336.
Burnside, O. C., Moorman, R. S., Roeth, F. W., Wicks, G. A., and Wilson, R. G. 1986. Weed seed demise in soil in weed-free corn (Zea mays) production across Nebraska. Weed Sci. 34:248251.
Cardina, J. and Norquay, H. M. 1997. Seed production and seedbank dynamics in subthreshold velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) populations. Weed Sci. 45:8590.
Carmer, S. G., Nyquist, W. E., and Walker, W. M. 1989. Least significant differences for combined analysis of experiments with two or three-factor treatment designs. Agron. J. 81:665672.
Cessna, A. J., Darwent, A. L., Townley-Smith, L., Harker, K. N., and Kirkland, K. J. 2002. Residues of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA in field pea, barley and flax seed following preharvest applications. Can. J. Plant Sci. 82:485489.
Clay, P. A. and Griffin, J. L. 2000. Weed seed production and seedling emergence responses to late-season glyphosate applications. Weed Sci. 48:481486.
Clements, D. R., Weise, S. F., and Swanton, C. J. 1994. Integrated weed management and weed species diversity. Phytoprotection. 75:118.
Crowley, R. H. and Buchanan, G. A. 1982. Variations in seed production and the response of pests of morningglory (Ipomoea) species and smallflower morningglory (Jacquemontia tamnifolia). Weed Sci. 30:187190.
Del Campillo, E. and Bennett, A. B. 1996. Pedicel breakstrength and cellulase gene expression during tomato flower abscission. Plant Physiol. 111:813820.
Devine, M., Duke, S. O., and Fedtke, C. 1993. Herbicide translocation. Pages 6794. in. Physiology of Herbicide Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ PTR Prentice Hall.
Doom, W. G. and Stead, A. D. 1997. Abscission of flowers and floral parts. J. Exp. Bot. 48:821837.
Egley, G. H. and Williams, R. D. 1990. Decline of weed seeds and seedling emergence over five years as affected by soil disturbances. Weed Sci. 38:504510.
Franz, J. E., Mao, M. K., and Sikorski, J. A. 1997. Glyphosate—A Unique Global Herbicide. Washington, DC American Chemical Society Monograph 189. 653.
Gardner, F. R., Pearce, R. B., and Mitchell, R. L. 1985. Transport and partitioning. Pages 5875. in. Physiology of Crop Plants. Ames, IO Iowa State University Press.
Gilreath, J. P., Chase, C. A., and Locascio, S. J. 2001. Crop injury from sublethal rates of herbicides, I: tomato. Hortscience. 36:669673.
Isaacs, M. A., Murdock, E. C., Toler, J. E., and Wallace, S. U. 1989. Effects of late-season herbicide application on sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia) seed production and viability. Weed Sci. 37:761765.
Kegode, G. O., Forcella, F., and Clay, S. 1999. Influence of crop rotation, tillage, and management inputs on weed seed production. Weed Sci. 47:175183.
Lewis, L. N. and Varner, J. E. 1970. Synthesis of cellulase during abscission of Phaseolus vulgaris leaf explants. Plant Physiol. 46:194199.
Pline, W. A., Price, A. J., Wilcut, J. W., Edmisten, K. L., and Wells, R. 2001. Absorption and translocation of glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant cotton as influenced by application method and growth stage. Weed Sci. 49:460467.
Pline, W. A., Wells, R., Little, G., Edmisten, K. L., and Wilcut, J. W. 2003. Glyphosate and water-stress effects on fruiting and carbohydrates in glyphosate-resistant cotton. Crop Sci. 43:879885.
Ratnayake, S. and Shaw, D. R. 1992. Effects of harvest-aid herbicides on sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia) seed yield and quality. Weed Technol. 6:985989.
Schweizer, E. E. and Zimdahl, R. L. 1984. Weed seed decline in irrigated soil after rotation of crops and herbicides. Weed Sci. 32:8489.
Shuma, J. M. and Raja, M. V. S. 1993. A histological study of the effect of glyphosate on seed development in wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Weed Res. 33:4351.
Sprankle, P., Meggitt, W. F., and Penner, D. 1975. Absorption, action, and translocation of glyphosate. Weed Sci. 23:235240.
Taylor, S. E. and Oliver, L. R. 1997. Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) seed production and viability as influenced by late-season postemergence herbicide applications. Weed Sci. 45:497501.
VanGessel, M. J., Ayeni, A. O., and Majek, B. A. 2000. Optimum glyphosate timing with or without residual herbicides in glyphosate-resistant soybean (Glycine max) under full-season conventional tillage. Weed Technol. 14:140149.
VanGessel, M. J., Ayeni, A. O., and Majek, B. A. 2001. Glyphosate in full season no-till glyphosate-resistant soybean: Role of preplant applications and residual herbicides. Weed Technol. 15:714724.
Wilson, R. G. 1988. Biology of weed seeds in the soil. Pages 2539. in Altieri, M. A. and Liebman, M., editors. Weed Management in Agroecosystems: Ecological Approaches. Boca Raton, FL CRC Press.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed