Skip to main content Accessibility help

Using the In Vivo Acetolactate Synthase (ALS) Assay for Identifying Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

  • Sarah Taylor Lovell (a1), Loyd M. Wax (a2), David M. Simpson (a3) and Marshal McGlamery (a3)


An in vivo ALS assay was used to differentiate between susceptible and resistant kochia biotypes from Idaho and Montana. Experiments were also conducted using this assay to determine the effect of the timing of herbicide application on ALS activity in resistant and susceptible cocklebur biotypes from Mississippi. When treated with chlorsulfuron, resistant kochia biotypes demonstrated 160-and 170-fold resistance at the whole plant level for the Idaho and Montana biotypes, respectively, compared to susceptible biotypes. Using the in vivo ALS assay, the Idaho and Montana biotypes showed 70- and 490-fold resistance, respectively, based on I50 values. The biotypes also demonstrated a low level of cross-resistance to imazethapyr using the in vivo technique. Resistant cocklebur biotypes showed approximately 200-fold resistance to imazaquin compared with susceptible biotypes. This research demonstrated that the in vivo assay can be used effectively to identify resistant biotypes 6 and 24 h after treatment, and to determine the extent of cross-resistance.



Hide All
Cotterman, J. C. and Saari, L. L. 1992. Rapid metabolic inactivation is the basis for cross-resistance to chlorsulfuron in diclofop-methyl-resistant rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) biotype SR4/84, Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 43:182192.
Devine, M. D., Maries, M.A.S., and Hall, L. M. 1991. Inhibition of acetolactate synthase in susceptible and resistant biotypes of Stellaria media . Pestic. Sci. 31:273280.
Gerwick, B. C., Mireles, L. C., and Eilers, R. J. 1993. Rapid diagnosis of ALS/AHAS-resistant weeds. Weed Technol. 7:519524.
Holt, J. S. 1992. History of identification of herbicide-resistant weeds. Weed Technol. 6:615620.
Holt, J. S., Powles, S. B., and Holtum, J.A.M. 1993. Mechanisms and agronomic aspects of herbicide resistance. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 44:203229.
Hutchison, J. M., Shapiro, R., and Sweetser, P. B. 1984. Metabolism of chlorsulfuron by tolerant broadleaves. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 22:243247.
Jasieniuk, M., Brule-Babel, A. L., and Morrison, I. N. 1996. The evolution and genetics of herbicide resistance in weeds. Weed Sci. 44:176193.
LeBaron, H. M. 1991. Distribution and seriousness of herbicide-resistant weed infestations worldwide. p. 2743 in Caseley, J. C., Cussans, G. W., and Atkin, R. K., eds. Herbicide Resistance in Weeds and Crops. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, England.
Mallory-Smith, C. A., Thill, D. C., and Dial, M. J. 1990a. Identification of sulfonylurea herbicide-resistant prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola). Weed Technol. 4:163168.
Mallory-Smith, C. A., Thill, D. C., Dial, M. J., and Zemetra, R. S. 1990b. Inheritance of sulfonylurea herbicide resistance in Lactuca spp. Weed Technol. 4:787790.
Saari, L. L., Cotterman, J. C., and Primiani, M. M. 1990. Mechanism of sulfonylurea herbicide resistance in the broadleaf weed, Kochia scoparia . Plant Physiol. 93:5561.
Saari, L. L., Cotterman, J. C., Smith, W. S., and Primiani, M. M. 1992. Sulfonylurea herbicide resistance in common chickweed, perennial ryegrass, and Russian thistle. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 42:110118.
Saari, L. L., Cotterman, J. C., and Thill, D. C. 1994. Resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides. p. 83140 in Powles, S. B. and Holtum, J.A.M., eds. Herbicide Resistance in Plants: Biology and Biochemistry. Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL 33431.
Schmitzer, P. R., Eilers, R. J., and Cseke, C. 1993. Lack of cross-resistance of imazaquin-resistant Xanthium strumarium acetolactate synthase to flumetsulam and chlorimuron. Plant Physiol. 103:281283.
Shaner, D. L. 1991. Mechanisms of resistance to acetolactate synthase/acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitors. p. 187198 in Caseley, J. C., Cussans, G. W., and Atkin, R. K., eds. Herbicide Resistance in Weeds and Crops. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, England.
Simpson, D. M., Stoller, E. W., and Wax, L. M. 1995. An in vivo acetolactate synthase assay. Weed Technol. 9:1722.
Sweetser, P. B., Schow, G. S., and Hutchison, J. M. 1982. Metabolism of chlorsulfuron by plants: biological basis for selectivity of a new herbicide for cereals. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 17:1823.
Westerfeld, W. W. 1945. A colorimetric determination of blood acetoin. J. Biol. Chem. 161:495502.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed