Skip to main content Accessibility help

Tolerance of Bentgrass (Agrostis) Species and Cultivars to Methiozolin

  • Nicholas R. Hoisington (a1), Michael L. Flessner (a2), Marco Schiavon (a1), J. Scott McElroy (a2) and James H. Baird (a1)...


Methiozolin is a new herbicide from South Korea currently under development in the United States for PRE and POST annual bluegrass control in bentgrass and most other cool- and warm-season turfgrasses. Greenhouse studies were conducted in 2012 at the University of California, Riverside, CA, and Auburn University, Auburn, AL, to evaluate the relative tolerance of three bentgrass species comprised of nine creeping bentgrass (CRBG) cultivars, velvet bentgrass (VBG) and colonial bentgrass (COBG) to methiozolin at 0, 0.6, 1.1, 2.2, 4.5 and 9.0 kg ai ha−1. Methiozolin was applied 7 wk after seeding, followed by a second application 5 wk later. Methiozolin rates that produced 25% injury (TI25) and 50% clipping dry weight reduction (GR50) relative to a nontreated control for each species or cultivar were calculated using four-parameter logistic regression. Turf injury rates at 21 d after second treatment (DAT2) were the most consistent in describing relative tolerance among bentgrass species. Overall, CRBG was more tolerant to methiozolin than VBG or COBG. After two applications, methiozolin rates that caused TI25 were 1.1, 0.2, and 0.3 kg ha−1 for CRBG (across all cultivars), VBG, and COBG, respectively. VBG and COBG were not tolerant of sequential methiozolin applications at rates necessary to control annual bluegrass under field conditions. Herbicide rates that caused TI25 and GR50 decreased with the second application. ‘Penn A-4’ CRBG exhibited the highest TI25 28 d after initial treatment (DAIT) at University of California at Riverside (4.5 kg ha−1), but only 2.5 kg ha−1 with two applications by 21 DAT2. All CRBG cultivars tested tolerated methiozolin at 0.5 kg ha−1, the recommended sequential use rate for putting greens in Korea.

Methiozolin es un herbicida nuevo proveniente de Korea del Sur que está actualmente siendo desarrollado en los Estados Unidos para el control PRE y POST de Poa annua en Agrostis spp. (bentgrass) y la mayoría de otros céspedes de clima frío y cálido. Se realizaron estudios de invernadero en 2012 en la Universidad de California, Riverside, California y en la Universidad Auburn, Auburn, Alabama, para evaluar la tolerancia relativa de tres especies de Agrostis incluyendo nueve cultivares de Agrostis stolonifera (CRBG), Agrostis canina (VBG) y Agrostis capillaris (COBG) a methiozolin a 0, 0.6, 1.1, 2.2, 4.5, y 9.0 kg ai ha−1. Methiozolin fue aplicado 7 semanas después de la siembra, seguido por una segunda aplicación 5 semanas después. Las dosis de methiozolin que produjeron 25% de daño (TI25) y una reducción del 50% en el peso seco (GR50) de los residuos de poda (clippings) en relación al testigo no-tratado para cada especie o cultivar fueron calculados usando una regresión logística de cuatro parámetros. El daño en el césped según la dosis a 21 d después del segundo tratamiento (DAT2) fue el más consistente al describir la tolerancia relativa entre especies de Agrostis. En general, CRBG fue más tolerante a methiozolin que VBG o COBG. Después de dos aplicaciones, las dosis de methiozolin que causaron TI25 fueron 1.1, 0.2, y 0.3 kg ha−1 para CRBG (promediado para todos los cultivares), VBG, y COBG, respectivamente. VBG y COBG no fueron tolerantes a aplicaciones secuenciales de methiozolin a dosis que son necesarias para el control de Poa annua bajo condiciones de campo. Las dosis de herbicida que causaron TI25 y GR50 disminuyeron con la segunda aplicación. CRBG ‘Penn A-4’ mostró la mayor TI25 28 d después del tratamiento inicial (DAIT) en la Universidad de California en Riverside (4.5 kg ha−1), pero solamente 2.5 kg ha−1 con dos aplicaciones a 21 DAT2. Todos los cultivares de CRBG evaluados toleraron methiozolin a 0.5 kg ha−1, la cual es la dosis secuencial recomendada para el uso en putting greens en Korea.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail:


Hide All
Anonymous (2009) Bensumec™ 4 LF herbicide product label. PBI/Gordon Publication No. 845/8-2009. Kansas City, MO: PBI/Gordon Corporation. 3 p
Beard, J B (1973) Turfgrass: Science and Culture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 658 p
Branham, B, Beasley, J (2007) PGRs: metabolism and plant responses. Golf Course Manag 75(7):9599
Brosnan, JT, Henry, GM, Breeden, GK, Cooper, GK, Serensits, TJ (2013) Methiozolin efficacy for annual bluegrass control on sand- and soil-based creeping bentgrass putting greens. Weed Technol 27:310316
Ervin, EH, Zhang, X (2008) Applied physiology of natural and synthetic plant growth regulators on turfgrasses. Pages 171200 in Pessarakli, M., ed. Handbook of Turfgrass Management and Physiology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Fagerness, MJ, Yelverton, FH (2000) Tissue production and quality of ‘Tifway’ bermudagrass as affected by seasonal application patterns of trinexapac-ethyl. Crop Sci 40:493497
Flessner, ML, Wehtje, G, McElroy, J (2013) Methiozolin absorption and translocation in annual bluegrass (Poa annua). Weed Sci 61:201208
Grossmann, K, Hutzler, J, Tresch, S, Christiansen, N, Looser, L, Ehrhardt, T (2011) On the mode of action of the herbicides cinmethylin and 5-benzyloxymethyl-1,2-isoxazolines: putative inhibitors of plant tyrosine aminotransferase. Pest Manag Sci 68:482492
Haguewood, JB, Moss, J, Xiong, X (2012) Efficacy and safety of methiozolin for pre-emergence control of annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) putting greens. Proceedings of the Crop Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America. 105–27 [Abstract]
Han, KM, Kaminski, J (2012) Influence of methiozolin rates and application timings on Poa annua populations. Proceedings of the Crop Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America. 355–25 [Abstract]
Hart, S (2012) Fall application regimes of methiozolin for annual bluegrass control in creeping bentgrass putting greens. Proceedings of the Crop Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America. 254–18 [Abstract]
Henry, GM, Hart, S (2004) Velvet and creeping bentgrass tolerance to fenoxaprop. HortScience 39:17681770
Hoyle, JA, Straw, C, Henry, G, Cooper, T, Beck, L, Brosnan, J, Breeden, G (2012) Fall applications of methiozolin for the control of annual bluegrass in sand-based and push-up greens. Proceedings of the Crop Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America. 254–9 [Abstract]
Hwang, IT, Kim, HR, Jeon, DJ, Hong, KS, Song, JH, Cho, KY (2005) 5-(2,6-difluorobenzyl)oxymethyl-5-methyl-3-(3-methylthiophen-2-yl)-1,2-isoxazoline as a useful rice herbicide. J Agric Food Chem 53:86398643
Johnson, BJ, Murphy, TR (1996) Suppression of a perennial subspecies of annual bluegrass (Poa annua spp. reptans) in a creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stonolifera) green with plant growth regulators. Weed Technol 10:705709
Kaminski, JE (2005) Tolerance of three bentgrass species to velocity and reducing turfgrass injury with iron + nitrogen. 2005 Annual Research Report. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut. 80 p
Koo, SJ, Hwang, KH, Jeon, MS, Kim, SH, Lim, J, Lee, DG, Cho, NG (2013) Methiozolin [5-(2,6-difluorobenzyl)oxymethyl-5-methyl-3,3(3-methylthiophen-2-yl)-1,2-isoxazoline], a new annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) herbicide for turfgrasses. Pest Manag Sci. DOI
Kreuser, WC, Soldat, DJ (2011) A growing degree day model to schedule trinexapac-ethyl applications on Agrostis stolonifera Golf Putting Greens. Crop Sci 51:22282236
Lee, JN, Koo, SJ, Hwang, KH, Hwang, IT, Jeon, DJ, Kim, HR (2007) Mode of action of a new isoxazoline compound. Pages 591601 in Marmbe, B. et al., eds. Proceedings of the 21st Asian Pacific Weed Science Conference. Colombo, Sri Lanka
Lycan, DW, Hart, SE (2005) Cool-season turfgrass response to bispyribac-sodium. HortScience 40:15521555
McCullough, PE, Gòmez de Barrea, D (2012) Cool-season turfgrass reseeding intervals for methiozolin. Weed Technol 26:789792
McCullough, PE, Gòmez de Barrea, D, Yu, J (2012) Selectivity of methiozolin for annual bluegrass control in creeping bentgrass as influenced by temperature and application timing. Weed Sci 61:209216.
McDonald, SJ, Dernoeden, PH, Kaminski, JE (2006) Colonial, creeping, and velvet bentgrass tolerance to sodium-bispyribac. Page 85 in Proceedings of the Weed Science Society of America. Ithaca, NY: Northeastern Weed Science Society. Vol.60
McElroy, JS, Flessner, ML, Murphy, TR (2013) Bermudagrass growth regulation with flucarbazone. Int Turfgrass Soc Res J 12: In Press
McNulty, B, Koo, S, Askew, S (2011) Annual bluegrass control with methiozolin on golf putting greens in the United States and Korea. Page 87 in Proceedings of the Northeastern Weed Science Society. Ithaca, NY: Northeastern Weed Science Society. Vol.65
Nam, JH, Hwang, K, Koo, S, Kim, C, Cho, C, Ko, YK (2012) Synthesis and herbicidal activities of enantiopure methiozolins. Bull Korean Chem Soc 33:297300
Seefeldt, SS, Jensen, JE, Hart, PE (1995) Log-logistic analysis of herbicide dose response relationships. Weed Tech 9:218227
Straw, S, Henry, G, Cooper, T, Beck, L (2012) Variable response of creeping bentgrass cultivars to metamifop. Proc Crop Sci Soc Amer 102-4
Trappe, JM., Patton, AJ, Weisenberger, D, Breeden, G, Brosnan, J (2012) Methiozolin rate and spring application timing affect annual bluegrass control on putting greens. Proceedings of the Crop Science Society of America. Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America. 102–11. [Abstract]



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed