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Timing of Soil-Residual Herbicide Applications for Control of Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida)

  • R. Joseph Wuerffel (a1), Julie M. Young (a2), Joseph L. Matthews (a1), Vince M. Davis (a3), William G. Johnson (a2) and Bryan G. Young (a2)...

Abstract

Fall-applied residual and spring preplant burn-down herbicide applications are typically used to control winter annual weeds and may also provide early-season residual control of summer annual weed species such as giant ragweed. Field experiments were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in southern Illinois to (1) assess the emergence pattern of giant ragweed, (2) evaluate the efficacy of several herbicides commonly used for soil-residual control of giant ragweed, and (3) investigate the optimal application timing of soil-residual herbicides for control of giant ragweed. Six herbicide treatments were applied at four application timings: early fall, late fall, early spring, and late spring. Giant ragweed first emerged in mid- and late-March in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The duration of emergence varied by year, with 95% of emergence complete in late May of 2008, but not until early July in 2007. Giant ragweed emergence occurred more quickly in plots that received a fall application of glyphosate + 2,4-D compared with the nontreated. Fall-applied residual herbicides did not reduce giant ragweed emergence in 2007 when compared with the nontreated, with the exception of chlorimuron + tribenuron applied in late fall. Giant ragweed control from early- and late-spring herbicide applications was variable by year. In 2007, saflufenacil (50 and 100 g ai ha−1) and simazine applied in early spring reduced giant ragweed densities by 95% or greater through mid-May; however, in 2008, early-spring applications failed to reduce giant ragweed emergence in mid-April. The only treatments that reduced giant ragweed densities by > 80% through early July were late-spring applications of chlorimuron + tribenuron or saflufenacil at 100 g ha−1. Thus, the emergence patterns of giant ragweed in southern Illinois dictates that best management with herbicides would include late-spring applications of soil-residual herbicides just before crop planting and most likely requires subsequent control with foliar or soil-residual herbicides after crop emergence.

Las aplicaciones de herbicidas residuales en el otoño y de herbicidas para eliminación general de vegetación antes de la siembra en la primavera son usadas típicamente para el control de malezas anuales de invierno y que pueden además brindar un control residual de malezas anuales de verano tales como Ambrosia trifida, temprano en la temporada. Experimentos de campo fueron realizados entre 2006 y 2008, en el sur de Illinois, para (1) evaluar el patrón de emergencia de A. trifida, (2) evaluar la eficacia de varios herbicidas comúnmente usados para el control residual en el suelo de A. trifida, e (3) investigar el momento de aplicación óptimo para herbicidas residuales en el suelo para el control de A. trifida. Se aplicaron seis tratamientos de herbicidas en cuatro momentos de aplicación: temprano en el otoño, tarde en el otoño, temprano en la primavera, y tarde en la primavera. A. trifida emergió primero durante la mitad y el final de Marzo en 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. La duración de la emergencia varió dependiendo del año, con 95% de la emergencia completándose al final de Mayo de 2008, pero no hasta el inicio de Julio en 2007. La emergencia de A. trifida ocurrió más rápidamente en parcelas que recibieron una aplicación de glyphosate + 2,4-D durante el otoño al compararse con el testigo sin tratamiento. Los herbicidas residuales aplicados en el otoño no redujeron la emergencia de A. trifida en 2007 cuando se compararon con el testigo, con la excepción de chlorimuron + tribenuron aplicados al final del otoño. El control de A. trifida con aplicaciones temprano y tarde durante la primavera fue variable dependiendo del año. En 2007, saflufenacil (50 y 100 g ai ha−1) y simazine aplicados temprano en la primavera redujeron las densidades de A. trifida en 95% o más hasta la mitad de Mayo. Sin embargo, en 2008, aplicaciones realizadas temprano en la primavera fallaron en reducir la emergencia de A. trifida en la mitad de Abril. Los únicos tratamientos que redujeron las densidades de A. trifida > 80% hasta el inicio de Julio fueron las aplicaciones de chlorimuron + tribenuron o saflufenacil a 100 g ha−1 tarde en la primavera. Así, los patrones de emergencia de A. trifida en el sur de Illinois dictan que el mejor manejo con herbicidas debería incluir aplicaciones de herbicidas de suelo residuales tarde en la primavera antes de la siembra del cultivo y muy probablemente requiere un control de seguimiento con herbicidas foliares y de suelo residuales después de la emergencia del cultivo.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: BryanYoung@purdue.edu.

References

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