Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Perennial Crop Nurseries Treated with Methyl Bromide and Alternative Fumigants: Effects on Weed Seed Viability, Weed Densities, and Time Required for Hand Weeding

  • Anil Shrestha (a1), Greg T. Browne (a2), Bruce D. Lampinen (a3), Sally M. Schneider (a4), Leo Simon (a5) and Thomas J. Trout (a6)...

Abstract

Data on the efficacy of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for weed control in perennial crop nurseries in California are needed because few herbicides are registered for this purpose. Field studies were conducted from 2003 to 2006 in four commercial perennial crop nurseries in California. Treatments included a nonfumigated control; methyl bromide (98%) (MeBr) with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) film; iodomethane (50%) + chloropicrin (50%) with HDPE film; 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) with HDPE film; 1,3-D (61%) + chloropicrin (35%) with HDPE film; 1,3-D (62%) + chloropicrin (35%) subsurface drip; and 1,3-D (61%) + chloropicrin (35%) with virtually impermeable film (VIF). All the fumigants reduced the seed viability of common purslane, johnsongrass, and tall morningglory but were not as effective on little mallow and field bindweed. Although total weed densities and the level of control provided by each fumigant differed between locations, weed density was generally reduced by all the fumigation treatments, compared to the nonfumigated control. At three locations, alternative fumigation treatments usually resulted in hand-weeding time similar to MeBr. Reductions in weed seed viability, weed emergence, and weed densities suggest that these alternative fumigants will provide weed control similar to MeBr in perennial nurseries.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: anil@uckac.edu

References

Hide All
Agamalian, H. S., Elmore, C. L., and Fischer, B. B. 1994. Weeds. Pages 99113. in Flint, M. L., editor. Integrated Pest Management for Strawberries. Oakland, CA University of California IPM Publication No. 3351.
[CDFA] California Department of Food and Agriculture Nursery Inspection Procedures Manual. 2001. http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/phpps/pe/NIPM.htm. Accessed: August 10, 2007.
Chakrabarti, B. and Bell, C. H. 1993. The methyl bromide issue. Chem. Ind. 24:992995.
Chase, C. A., Stall, W. M., Simonne, E. H., Hochmuth, R. C., Dukes, M. D., and Weiss, A. W. 2006. Nutsedge control with drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin in a sandy soil. HortTechnology. 16:641648.
Chellemi, D. O., Olson, S. M., Mitchell, D. J., Secker, I., and McSorley, R. M. 1997. Adaptation of soil solarization to the integrated management of soilborne pests of tomato under humid conditions. Phytopathology. 87:250258.
Csinos, A. S., Summer, D. R., Johnson, W. C., Johnson, A. W., McPherson, R. M., and Dowler, C. C. 2000. Methyl bromide alternatives in tobacco, tomato and pepper transplant production. Crop Prot. 19:3949.
Egley, G. H. 1986. Stimulation of weed seed germination in soil. Rev. Weed Sci. 2:6789.
Fennimore, S. A. and Haar, M. J. 2003. Weed control in strawberry provided by shank- and drip-applied methyl bromide alternative fumigants. Hortscience. 38:5561.
Gilreath, J. P., Noling, J. W., and Santos, B. M. 2004. Methyl bromide alternatives for bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) rotations. Crop Prot. 23:347351.
Gilreath, J. P. and Santos, B. M. 2004. Efficacy of methyl bromide alternatives on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) control in tomato and pepper. Weed Technol. 18:341345.
Gilreath, J. P., Santos, B. M., Busacca, J. D., Eger, J. E. Jr, Mirusso, J. M., and Gilreath, P. R. 2005. Validating broadcast application of Telone C-35 complemented with chloropicrin and herbicides in commercial tomato farms. Crop Prot. 25:7982.
Goodhue, R. E., Fennimore, S. A., and Ajwa, H. A. 2005. The economic importance of methyl bromide: does the California strawberry industry qualify for a critical use exemption from the methyl bromide ban. Rev. Agric. Econ. 27:198211.
Grabe, D. F. 1970. Tetrazolium Testing Handbook. Contribution No. 29 to the Handbook on Seed Testing. Stillwater, OK Association of Official Seed Analysts. 62.
Guerrero, M. M., Martínez, M. A., Martínez, M. C., Barceló, N., Lacasa, A., Ros, C., Guirao, P., Bello, A., and López, J. A. 2005. Biofumigation plus solarization efficacy for soil disinfestation in sweet pepper greenhouses in the southeast of Spain. Acta Hortic. 698:293298.
Haar, M. J., Fennimore, S. A., Ajwa, H. A., and Winterbottom, C. Q. 2003. Chloropicrin effect on weed seed viability. Crop Prot. 22:109115.
Hanson, B. and Shrestha, A. 2006. Weed control with methyl bromide alternatives. CAB Rev. 1/063):http://www.cababstractsplus.org/cabreviews/reviews.asp. Accessed: August 10, 2007.
Hutchinson, C. M., McGiffen, M. E. Jr, Sims, J. J., and Becker, J. O. 2003. Fumigant combinations for Cyperus esculentum L. control. Pest Manag. Sci. 60:369374.
Klose, S., Ajwa, H. A., Fennimore, S. A., Martin, F. N., Browne, G. T., and Subbarao, K. V. 2007. Dose response of weed seeds and soil-borne pathogens to 1,3-D and chloropicrin. Crop Prot. 26:535542.
Locascio, S. J., Gilreath, J. P., Dickson, D. W., Kucharek, T. A., Jones, J. P., and Noling, J. W. 1997. Fumigant alternatives to methyl bromide for polyethylene mulched tomato. Hortscience. 32:12081211.
Majewski, M. S., McChesney, M. M., Woodrow, J. E., Prueger, J. H., and Seiber, J. N. 1995. Aerodynamic measurements of methyl bromide volatilization from tarped and nontarped fields. J. Environ. Qual. 24:742752.
Makowski, R. and Morrison, M. D. 1989. The biology of Canadian weeds. 91. Malva pusilla Sm. Can. J. Plant Sci. 69:861879.
Noling, J. W., Rosskopf, E. N., and Chellemi, D. O. 2000. Impacts of alternative fumigants on soil pest control and tomato yield. Pages 30-130-7. in. Proceedings of the Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions. Orlando, FL. Fresno, CA: Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach.
Porqueddu, C., Loi, A., and Cocks, P. S. 1996. Hardseededness and pattern of hard seed breakdown of Sardinian populations of Medicago polymorpha under field conditions. J. Agric. Sci. 126:161168.
Rolston, M. P. 1978. Water-impermeable seed dormancy. Bot. Rev. 44:365396.
Rosskopf, E. N., Charudattan, R., Chellemi, D. O., and Chandramohan, S. 2000. Alternatives to methyl bromide for weed control. Acta Hortic. 532:103108.
Santos, B. M., Gilreath, J. P., Motis, T. N., Noling, J. W., Jones, J. P., and Norton, J. A. 2006. Comparing methyl bromide alternatives for soilborne disease, nematode and weed management in fresh market tomato. Crop Prot. 25:690695.
SAS 1998. SAS/STAT User's Guide. Release 7.00. Cary, NC SAS Institute. 1028.
Schneider, S. M., Rosskopf, E. N., Leesch, J. G., Chellemi, D. O., Bull, C. T., and Mazzola, M. 2003. United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service research on alternatives to methyl bromide: pre-plant and post-harvest. Pest Manag. Sci. 59:814826.
Stapleton, J. J., Elmore, C. L., and DeVay, J. E. 2000. Solarization and biofumigation help disinfest soil. Calif. Agric. 54:4245.
Unruh, J. B., Brecke, B. J., Dusky, J. A., and Godbehere, J. S. 2002. Fumigant alternatives to methyl bromide prior to turfgrass establishment. Weed Technol. 16:379387.
[UNEP] United Nations Environment Programme 2000. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. http://www.unep.org/ozone/pdf/Montreal-Protocol2000.pdf. Accessed: August 10, 2007.
[USDA] United States Department of Agriculture 2000. Economic implications of the methyl bromide phaseout. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 756. Washington, DC United States Department of Agriculture. 12.
[USEPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency 2006. Methyl Bromide: Questions and Answers. http://www.epa.gov/ozone/mbr/qa.html. Accessed: August 10, 2007.
Wang, D. and Yates, S. R. 1998. Methyl bromide emission from fields partially covered with a high density polyethylene and virtually impermeable film. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32:25152518.
Yagi, K., Williams, J., Wang, N. Y., and Cicerone, R. J. 1995. Atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br) from agricultural soil fumigations. Science. 267:5206.
Yates, S. R., Gan, J., and Papiernik, S. K. 2003. Environmental fate of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 117:45122.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed