Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) Density Effects on Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Harvest and Economic Value

  • Mark L. Wood (a1), Don S. Murray (a1), J. C. Banks (a1), Laval M. Verhalen (a1), R. Brent Westerman (a1) and Kim B. Anderson (a2)...

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted in 1996 and 1997 to evaluate the effects of six johnsongrass densities on picker- vs. stripper-harvest efficiency, fiber properties, loan rate, and lint yield loss of cotton. The weed densities employed were 0 (the check), 3, 4, 5, 8, and 15 plants/15 m of row. With three or fewer weeds in 1996 and four or fewer in 1997, harvest efficiencies were 4.9 to 7.6% higher for stripper- than for picker-harvested cotton. At four and higher weed densities in 1996 and at five and higher in 1997, differences in harvest efficiency between the two machines were not significant. For each weed per 15 m of row, stripper-harvest efficiency in 1996 and 1997 was reduced 0.3 and 0.6%, respectively; picker-harvest efficiency was not affected by the johnsongrass densities included herein. Fiber fineness (i.e., micronaire) was significantly reduced at densities of 8 weeds/15 m of row in 1997 and at 15 weeds in both years. A questionable increase in staple length was detected at the 3-weed density in 1996. Reductions in fiber strength were noted in 1997 at densities of 3, 8, and 15 weeds/15 m of row. No influences on fiber length uniformity were shown. In 1996 the loan rate for picker-harvested lint was 570 points/kg higher than for stripper-harvested lint at 8 weeds/15 m of row. In 1997 it was 741, 801, 1,058, 1,225, 1,074, and 1,329 points/kg higher at weed densities of 0, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 15 plants/15 m of row, respectively. In 1997 picker-harvest loan rate was reduced 49 points/kg of lint, and stripper-harvest loan rate was reduced 85 points. Over both years, picker-harvest lint yield was reduced 32 to 43 kg/ha (3.9 to 5.5%) for each weed per 15 m of row, and stripper-harvest lint yield was reduced 29 to 43 kg/ha (3.5 to 5.2%).

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: dsm@mail.pss.okstate.edu

References

Hide All
Albers-Nelson, M. R., Murray, D. S., Verhalen, L. M., and Goad, C. L. 2000. Establishment techniques for common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium). Weed Technol. 14: 463470.
Bridges, D. C. and Chandler, J. M. 1987. Influence of johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) density and period of competition on cotton yield. Weed Sci. 35: 6367.
Buchanan, G. A. and Burns, E. R. 1970. Influence of weed competition on cotton. Weed Sci. 18: 149154.
Buchanan, G. A. and Burns, E. R. 1971. Weed competition in cotton. I. Sicklepod and tall morningglory. Weed Sci. 19: 576579.
Buchanan, G. A., Crowley, R. H., and McLaughlin, R. D. 1977. Competition of prickly sida with cotton. Weed Sci. 25: 106110.
Crowley, R. H. and Buchanan, G. A. 1978. Competition of four morningglory (Ipomoea spp.) species with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Sci. 26: 484488.
Dowler, C. C. 1998. Weed survey—Southern states: Broadleaf crops subsection. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. 51: 299313.
Hake, K., Bragg, K., Mauney, J., and Metzer, B. 1990. Causes of high and low micronaire. Cotton Physiol. Today 1/ 12: 14.
Jacobson, B. D., Murray, D. S., and Stone, J. F. 1994. Soil-water extraction profiles of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and weed species. Weed Technol. 8: 190198.
Keeley, P. E. and Thullen, R. J. 1989. Growth and interaction of johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Sci. 37: 339344.
Kletke, D. and Doye, D. G. 2000. Oklahoma Farm and Ranch Custom Rates, 1999–2000. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service Current Rep. CR-205.
Pawlak, J. A., Murray, D. S., and Smith, B. S. 1990. Influence of capsule age on germination of nondormant jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) seed. Weed Technol. 4: 3134.
Ramey, H. H. Jr. 1999. Classing of fiber. In Smith, C. W. and Cothren, J. T., eds. Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. New York: J. Wiley. pp. 709727.
Rogers, J. B., Murray, D. S., Verhalen, L. M., and Claypool, P. L. 1996. Ivyleaf morningglory (Ipomoea hederacea) interference with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technol. 10: 107114.
Rowland, M. W., Murray, D. S., and Verhalen, L. M. 1999. Full-season Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) interference with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Sci. 47: 305309.
[SAS] Statistical Analysis Systems. 1988. SAS/STAT User's Guide. Release 6.03 ed. Cary, NC: Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 1028 p.
Smith, D. T., Baker, R. V., and Steele, G. L. 2000. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) impacts on yield, harvesting, and ginning in dryland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technol. 14: 122126.
Vories, E. D. and Bonner, C. M. 1995. Comparison of Harvest Methods for Dryland Cotton. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 945. 16 p.
Wood, M. L., Murray, D. S., Westerman, R. B., Verhalen, L. M., and Claypool, P. L. 1999. Full-season interference of Ipomoea hederacea with Gossypium hirsutum . Weed Sci. 47: 693696.

Keywords

Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) Density Effects on Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Harvest and Economic Value

  • Mark L. Wood (a1), Don S. Murray (a1), J. C. Banks (a1), Laval M. Verhalen (a1), R. Brent Westerman (a1) and Kim B. Anderson (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed