Skip to main content Accessibility help

Influence of Environmental Factors on Seed Germination and Emergence of Asia Minor Bluegrass (Polypogon fugax)

  • Lifeng Wang (a1), Su Jin (a2), Lamei Wu (a1), Xiaomao Zhou (a1), Xiangying Liu (a3) and Lianyang Bai (a1)...


Asia minor bluegrass (AmB) is a major weed impacting rapeseed production in Dongting Lake District, China. Growth chamber experiments were conducted to determine the influence of environmental factors on germination and emergence of AmB. The optimum constant temperature for germination was around 20 C. Seeds showed germination percentages above 60% under 22/15 and 24/19 C day/night temperature regimes. Seeds could germinate in the dark, but light exposure significantly enhanced the germination percentage. More than 50% of seeds germinated over a pH range between 4 and 10. Seeds were highly sensitive to osmotic stress, and germination was completely inhibited at an osmotic potential of −0.4 MPa, indicating that it was favored by a moist environment. Increasing salinity reduced germination of AmB seeds from 58% at 0 mM to 13% at 80 mM NaCl. The highest seedling emergence (62%) was observed when seeds were placed on the soil surface, and no seedlings emerged from seeds placed at a depth of 5 cm. This work shows that the climate and soil conditions in Dongting Lake District are suitable for AmB seed germination and that no-till fields, where seeds remain on the soil surface, promote the successful establishment of the weed.

Polypogon fugax (AmB) es una maleza importante que impacta la producción de colza en el distrito Lago Dongting, China. Se realizaron experimentos en cámaras de crecimiento para determinar la influencia de factores ambientales en la germinación y emergencia de AmB. La temperatura constante óptima para la germinación fue alrededor de 20 C. Las semillas mostraron porcentajes de germinación superiores a 60% con regímenes de temperatura de 22/15 y 24/19 C día/noche. Las semillas pudieron germinar en la oscuridad, pero la exposición a la luz mejoró significativamente el porcentaje de germinación. Más del 50% de las semillas germinaron en un rango de pH entre 4 y 10. Las semillas fueron muy sensibles al estrés osmótico y la germinación fue completamente inhibida a un potencial osmótico de −0.4 MPa, indicando que la germinación fue favorecida en un ambiente húmedo. El aumentar la salinidad redujo la germinación de las semillas de AmB desde 58% con 0mM a 13% con 80 mM NaCl. La mayor emergencia de plántulas (62%) fue observada cuando las semillas fueron puestas sobre la superficie del suelo, y ninguna plántula emergió cuando las semillas fueron puestas a una profundidad de 5 cm. Este trabajo muestra que el clima y las condiciones de suelo en el distrito Lago Dongting son favorables para la germinación de semillas de AmB y que los campos con labranza cero, donde la semilla permanece sobre la superficie del suelo, promueven el establecimiento exitoso de esta maleza.


Corresponding author

Corresponding authors' E-mails: and


Hide All

These authors contributed equally to this work.

Associate Editor for this paper: Bradley Hanson, University of California, Davis.



Hide All
[APIS] Agriculture Pest Information System (2014) Database of Dry Land Weeds in China, dw00196. Accessed May 4, 2014
Benvenuti, S (1995) Soil light penetration and dormancy of jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) seeds. Weed Sci 43:389393
Chachalis, D, Korres, N, Khah, EM (2008) Factors affecting seed germination and emergence of Venice mallow (Hibiscus trionum). Weed Sci 56:509515
Chachalis, D, Reddy, KN (2000) Factors affecting Campsis radicans seed germination and seedling emergence. Weed Sci 48:212216
Chauhan, BS, Johnson, DE (2008) Seed germination and seedling emergence of giant sensitiveplant (Mimosa invisa). Weed Sci 56:244248
Cheng, J, Pan, G, Cang, L, Yang, J, Wang, J (2000) Effect of simulation acid rain on plant and pH of paddy soils in Taihu area. J Nanjing Agric Univ 23:116118[In Chinese]
Flora of China (2006) Flora of China Branch; Poaceae, Polypogon . Accessed December 27, 2013
Grime, JP, Mason, G, Curtis, AV, Rodman, J, Band, SR, Mowforth, MAG, Neal, AM, Shaw, S (1981) A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. J Ecol 69:10171059
Huang, H (2007) Current situation on direct seeding and no-tillage cultivation of rape field in China. Hunan Agric Sci 4:158160[In Chinese]
Huang, Y, Jiao, Y, Zong, L, Zhou, Q, Zheng, X, Sass, R (2002) N2O emission from wheat cultivated soils as influenced by soil physicochemical properties. Acta Sci Circ 22:598602[In Chinese]
Jung, M, Soreng, RJ, Kuoh, C (2006) Notes on grasses (Poaceae) for the Flora of Taiwan (II). Taiwania 51:240248
Keshavarzi, M, Kharazian, FA, Seifali, M (2007) Morphological variations of genus Polypogon in Iran. Iran J Weed Sci 3:118128
Koger, CH, Reddy, KN, Poston, DH (2004) Factors affecting seed germination, seedling emergence, and survival of texasweed (Caperonia palustris). Weed Sci 52:989995
Michel, BE, Kaufaman, MR (1973) The osmotic potential of polyethylene glycol 6000. Plant Physiol 51:914916
Peng, PQ, Wu, JS, Huang, DY (2006) Microbial biomass C, N, P of farmland soils in different land uses and cropping systems in Dongting Lake region. Acta Ecol Sin 26:22612266[In Chinese]
Peng, W, Zhu, Q, Li, Y, Tang, D (2011) Temperature effect on seed germination of four weeds. Weed Sci (China) 29:2629[In Chinese]
Qiang, S (2002) Weed diversity of arable land in China. J Korean Weed Sci 22:187198
Qiang, S (2005) Multivariate analysis, description, and ecological interpretation of weed vegetation in the summer crop fields of Anhui Province, China. J Integr Plant Biol 47:11931210
Qureshi, R, Waheed, A, Arshad, M (2009) Weed communities of wheat crop in district Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan. Pak J Bot 41:239245
Rana, N, Wilder, BJ, Sellers, BA, Ferrell, JA, MacDonald, GE (2012) Effects of environmental factors on seed germination and emergence of smutgrass (Sporobolus indicus) varieties. Weed Sci 60:558563
Ranjit, JD, Bellinder, R, Benidict, C, Kumar, V (2011) Green house studies on the biology of winter annual grasses and the use of cover crops and herbicides for their control. Agron J Nepal 2:139148
Rao, N, Dong, L, Li, J, Zhang, H (2008) Influence of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of American sloughgrass (Beckmannia syzigachne). Weed Sci 56:529533
Shao, G, Zhang, J (1992) Characteristic and management of agricultural ecosystem in Dongting Lake wetland. Resour Sci 14:4852[In Chinese]
Shaw, DR, Mack, RE, Smith, CA (1991) Redvine (Brunnichia ovata) germination and emergence. Weed Sci 39:3336
Tang, W, Zhou, F, Chen, J, Zhou, X (2014) Resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in an Asia minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax) population in China. Pestic Biochem Physiol 108:1620
Taylorson, RB (1987) Environmental and chemical manipulation of weed seed dormancy. Rev Weed Sci 3:135154
TianQi (2013) Historical Synoptic Chart, Changde. Accessed December 19, 2013
Wei, S, Zhang, C, Li, X, Cui, H, Huang, H, Sui, B, Meng, Q, Zhang, H (2009) Factors affecting buffalobur (Solanum rostratum) seed germination and seedling emergence. Weed Sci 57:521525
Zhang, H (1993) Studies on the production loss of wheat affected by Polypogon fugax and the economic thresholds. Weed Sci (China) 4:1516[In Chinese]
Zhao, Y, Yi, S, Yang, X, Pi, C (2001) Investigation of weeds occurring in rapeseed fields of Dongting Lake region. Crop Res 2:3536[In Chinese]



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed