Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Influence of Competitive Duration of Blessed Milkthistle (Silybum marianum) with Wheat

  • Abdul Rehman (a1), Rafi Qamar (a1), Muhammad Ehsan Safdar (a1), Atique-ur Rehman (a2), Hafiz Muhammad Rashad Javeed (a3), Muhammad Shoaib (a4), Rizwan Maqbool (a5) and Tasawer Abbas (a1)...

Abstract

Blessed milkthistle is considered to be a noxious weed in irrigated and rainfed areas of Pakistan due to its strong allelopathic effects on food crops. For sustainable wheat production, it is necessary to know the critical time for weed removal (CTWR) for blessed milkthistle to allow wheat growers to get maximum benefit from control of this weed. A field study was conducted in 2014 and 2015 at the College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan, to investigate the CTWR of blessed milkthistle in wheat. The field experiments were designed with seven treatments; weed free (control); 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk after emergence (WAE); and weedy check. At 6 WAE, a significant reduction was noted in plant height (8% and 17%), number of productive tillers per square meter (16% and 16%), spike length (23% and 54%), grains per spike (13% and 34%), 1,000-grain weight (14% and 37%), grain yield (20% and 21%), and biological yield (24% and 50%) compared with control (weed-free plots) during 2014 and 2015, respectively. The logistic model supports the field study results and suggests that blessed milkthistle’s CTWR for wheat is 1 to 5 WAE based on acceptable yield losses of 5% to 15% during both years. The experimental results and logistic model indicate that blessed milkthistle should be controlled within 1 to 5 WAE to get better wheat crop harvests without compromising farmers’ profits. To our knowledge, this is the first study ever in Pakistan regarding the CTWR in terms of WAE of blessed milkthistle and could help other scientists create weed control strategies for other areas of the country.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Rafi Qamar, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan. (Email: rafi.qamar@uos.edu.pk)

References

Hide All
Agostinetto, D, Rigoli, RP, Schaedler, CE, Tironi, SP, Santos, LS (2008) Critical period for weed competition with wheat. Planta Daninha 26:271278
Alford, CM, Stephen, DM, Jack, TC (2004) Using row spacing to increase crop competition with weeds. September, 2004, Poster presentation at 4th International Crop Science Congress, Brisbane, Australia. http://www.cropscience.org.au/icsc2004/poster/2/4/1/412_alfordcm.htm
Anonymous (1998) Agricultural Statistics of North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Planning and Development Department, Islamabad, Pakistan
Ansar, M, Shahzad, MA, Nasim, M, Musa, M, Shahid, HA (1996) Effect of nitrogen and weed density on maize growth and yield. J Agric Res 34:99105
Armin, M, Noormohammadi, G, Zand, E, Baghestani, MA, Darvish, F (2007) Using plant density to increase competition ability in more and less competitive wheat cultivars with wild oat. Asian J Plant Sci 6:599604
Blackshaw, RE, Lemerle, D, Mailer, R, Young, KR (2002) Influence of wild radish on yield and quality of canola. Weed Sci 50:344349
Chambreau, D, MacLaren, PA (2007) Got milk thistle? An adaptive management approach to eradicating milk thistle on dairies in King County, Washington State. Pages 83–84 in Harrington TB, Reichard SH, tech. eds. Meeting the Challenge: Invasive Plants in Pacific Northwest Ecosystems. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-694
Cousens, R (1987) Theory and reality of weed control thresholds. Plant Prot Q 2:1320
Freed, R, Eisensmith, SP, Goetz, S, Reicosky, D, Smail, VW, Wolberg, P (1991) Users Guide to MSTAT-C: a software program for the design, management, and analysis of agronomic research experiments. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
[GOP] Government of Pakistan (2015–2016) Pakistan Economic Survey. Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan.Chapter number 03, Pp 19-40
Groves, RH, Kaye, PE (1989) Germination and phenology of seven introduced thistle species in Southern Australia. Aust J Bot 37:351359
Gupta, OP (2004) Modern Weed Management. 2nd ed. Jodhpur, India: Agrobios. Pp 1823
Irshad, A (2000) Interference of Barnyard Grass (Echinochola crus-galli) and strategy of Its Control in Fine Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Ph.D thesis. Faisalabad, Pakistan: Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture
Johnson, GA, Hoverstad, TR, Greenwald, RE (1998) Integrated weed management using narrow corn row spacing, herbicides, and cultivation. Agron J 90:4046
Khan, GS (1986) Need for international crosschecking and correlation in soil analysis for international classification systems. Pages 276–293 in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Forum on Soil Taxonomy and Agro-Technology Transfer: Soil Survey of Pakistan. Volume 1. Lahore: Director General, Soil Survey of Pakistan
Khan, IJ, Hassan, G, Ihsaullah, Khatak IA (2007) Effect of wild oats (Avena fatua L.) densities and proportions on yield and yield components of wheat. J Agri Biol Sci 2:2631
Knezevic, SZ, Evans, SP, Blankenship, EE, Van Acker, RC, Lindquist, JL (2002) Critical period for weed control: the concept and data analysis. Weed Sci 50:773786
Kumar, SMS, Sundari, A (2002) Studies on the effect of major nutrients and crop–weed competition period in maize. Indian J Weed Sci 34:309310
Martin, SG, Van Acker, RC, Friesen, LF (2001) Critical period of weed control in spring canola. Weed Sci 49:326333
Marwat, MI, Ahmad, HK, Marwat, KB, Hassan, G (2003). Integrated weed management in wheat–II. Pak J Weed Sci Res 9:2331
[MINFAL] Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Livestock (2011) Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan. Islamabad: Goverment of Pakistan. Pp 34
Oerke, EC, Dehne, HW, Schönbeck, F, Weber, A (1994) Crop Production and Crop Protection: Estimated Losses in Major Food and Cash Crops. Amsterdam: Elsevier
Parsons, WT (1973) Noxious Weeds of Victoria. Melbourne. Australia: Inkata Press. 300 p
Qasim, JR, Foy, CL (2001) Weed allelopathy: its ecological impacts and future prospect. J Crop Prod 4:43120
Rajcan, I, Swanton, CJ (2001) Understanding maize–weed competition: resource competition, light quality and the whole plant. Field Crops Res 71:139150
Safdar, ME, Tanveer, A, Khaliq, A, Maqbool, R (2016) Critical competition period of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in maize. Crop Prot 80:101107
SAS Institute (2008) SAS/STAT 9.1 User’s Guide: The REG Procedure (Book Excerpt). Cary, NC: SAS Institute
Steel, RGD, Torrie, JH, Dicky, DA (1997) Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometric Approach. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pp 178198
Systat Software Inc. (2008) SigmaPlot for Windows (development and testing procedures). Version 11.0. Triestram and Partner GmbH, Bochum, Germany

Keywords

Influence of Competitive Duration of Blessed Milkthistle (Silybum marianum) with Wheat

  • Abdul Rehman (a1), Rafi Qamar (a1), Muhammad Ehsan Safdar (a1), Atique-ur Rehman (a2), Hafiz Muhammad Rashad Javeed (a3), Muhammad Shoaib (a4), Rizwan Maqbool (a5) and Tasawer Abbas (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed