Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Increasing the Efficacy and Extending the Effective Application Period of a Granular Turf Bioherbicide by Covering with Jute Fabric

  • Mohammed H. Abu-Dieyeh (a1) and Alan K. Watson (a1)

Abstract

Progress in bioherbicide development has been hindered by the strict moisture and temperature requirements of the living active ingredient. Application of a jute fabric to areas treated with a Sclerotinia minor granular bioherbicide improved broadleaf weed control and broadened the effective application period to include the warm summer season. When turfgrass plots treated with the bioherbicide were covered with burlap fabric for 3 d, broadleaf weed (dandelion, white clover, broadleaf plantain, buckhorn plantain, ground ivy, and prostrate knotweed) control was greatly enhanced. The cover was made of natural jute fibers that retained water but had sufficient transparency to allow 33% light penetration for continued growth of the grass. Virulence of the bioherbicide was maintained under elevated temperatures that would otherwise reduce efficacy. The bioherbicide was ineffective in the summer unless covered, but dandelion density, broadleaf weed ground cover, and dandelion survival were all reduced by the bioherbicide when plots were covered, even if applications were made in July. The efficacy of the bioherbicide was also enhanced under favorable conditions, and covering permitted reduced application rates without loss of efficacy. When applied at a rate of 20 g/m2 and covered, S. minor granules exerted significantly greater biocontrol of dandelion than 40 g/m2 without covering. Covering for up to 5 d did not cause any adverse effects on the turfgrass. This approach may overcome one obstacle to the commercialization of the Sclerotinia minor bioherbicide, permitting its deployment under challenging environmental conditions.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: alan.watson@mcgill.ca.

References

Hide All
Abawi, G. and Grogan, R. 1979. Epidemiology of diseases caused by Sclerotinia species. Phytopathology 69:889904.
Abu-Dieyeh, M. H. 2006. Population Dynamics of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) in Turfgrass as Influenced by a Biological Control Agent, Sclerotinia minor. . Montreal, QC, Canada: McGill University. 298.
Abu-Dieyeh, M. H. and Watson, A. K. 2005. Impact of mowing and weed control on broadleaf weed population dynamics in turf. J. Plant Interact 1:239252.
Abu-Dieyeh, M. H. and Watson, A. K. 2006. Effect of turfgrass mowing height on biocontrol of Taraxacum officinale with Sclerotinia minor . Biocontrol Sci. Technol 16:509524.
Abu-Dieyeh, M. H. and Watson, A. K. 2007a. Grass over-seeding and a fungus combine to control Taraxacum officinale. J. App. Ecol 44:115124.
Abu-Dieyeh, M. H. and Watson, A. K. 2007b. Efficacy of Sclerotinia minor for dandelion control: effect of dandelion accession, age and grass competition. Weed Res 4:6372.
Abu-Dieyeh, M. H. and Watson, A. K. 2007c. Population dynamics of broadleaf weeds in turfgrass as influenced by chemical and biological control methods. Weed Sci 55:371380.
Boyette, C. D. and Walker, H. L. 1985. Factors influencing biocontrol of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and prickly sida (Sida spinosa) with Fusarium lateritium . Weed Sci 33:209211.
Chittick, A. T. and Auld, B. A. 2001. Polymers in bioherbicide formulation: Xanthium spinosum and Colletotrichum as a model system. Biocontrol Sci. Technol 11:691702.
Connick, W. J. Jr., Boyette, C. D., and McAlpine, J. R. 1991. Formulation of mycoherbicides using a pasta-like process. Biol. Control 1:281287.
Daigle, D. J., Connick, W. J. Jr., Quimby, P. C. Jr., Evans, J., Trask-Morrell, B., and Fulgham, F. E. 1990. Invert emulsion: carrier and water source for the mycoherbicide, Alternaria cassiae . Weed Technol 4:327331.
Derr, J. F. 1989. Weed control with landscape fabrics. J. Environ. Hortic 7:129133.
Emmons, R. 1995. Turfgrass Science and Management. Albany, NY: Delmar. 512.
Feldman, R. S., Holmes, C. E., and Blomgren, T. A. 2000. Use of fabric and compost mulches for vegetable production in a low tillage, permanent bed system: effects on crop yield and labor. Am. J. Altern. Agric 15:146153.
Forcella, F., Poppe, S. R., Hansen, N. C., Head, W. A., Hoover, E. Y., Propsom, F., and McKensie, J. 2003. Biological mulches for managing weeds in transplanted strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). Weed Technol 17:782788.
Fravel, D. R. 2005. Commercialization and implementation of biocontrol. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol 43:337359.
Hallett, S. G. 2005. Where are the bioherbicides? Weed Sci 53:404415.
Hollowell, J. E., Shew, B. B., Cubeta, M. A., and Wilcut, J. W. 2003. Weed species as hosts of Sclerotinia minor in peanut fields. Plant Dis 87:197199.
Kennedy, A. C. and Kremer, R. J. 1996. Microorganisms in weed control strategies. J. Prod. Agric 9:480485.
Larsen, S. U., Kristoffersen, P., and Fischer, J. 2004. Turfgrass management and weed control without pesticides on football pitches in Denmark. Pest Manag. Sci 50:579587.
Leathers, T. D., Oupta, S. C., and Alexander, N. J. 1993. Mycopesticides: status, challenges and potential. J. Ind. Microbiol 12:6975.
Martin, C. A., Ponder, H. G., and Gilliam, C. H. 1991. Evaluation of landscape fabrics in suppressing growth of weed species. J. Environ. Hortic 9:3840.
McCarty, L. B., Everest, J. W., Hall, D. W., Murphy, T. R., and Yelverton, F. 2001. Color Atlas of Turfgrass Weeds. Chelsea, MI: Sleeping Bear Press. 269.
Melzer, M. and Boland, G. 1994. Epidemiology of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor . Can. J. Plant Pathol 16:170–101.
Melzer, M., Smith, E., and Boland, G. 1997. Index of plant hosts of Sclerotinia minor . Can. J. Plant Pathol 19:272280.
Miltner, E. D., Stahnke, G. K., Rinehart, G. J., Backman, P. A., and Johnston, W. J. 2004. Establishment of Poa annua var. reptans from seed under golf course conditions in the Pacific Northwest. Crop Sci 44:21542159.
Monaco, T. J., Weller, S. C., and Ashton, F. M. 2002. Weed Science: Principles and Practices. New York: J. Wiley. 671.
Patton, A., Trappe, J., and Richardson, M. 2008. Seed covers and germination blankets influence the establishment of seeded warm-season grasses. Pages 4246. in. Arkansas Turfgrass Report 2007. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Agriculture Experiment Station Rep. 557.
[PMRA] Pest Management Regulatory Agency 2007. Evaluation Report: Sclerotinia minor Strain IMI 344141 (ERC2007-02). Ottawa, Canada: Health Canada. 50.
Quimby, P. C. Jr., Fulgham, F. E., Boyette, C. D., and Connick, W. J. 1988. An invert emulsion replaces dew in biocontrol of sicklepod—a preliminary study. Pages 264270. in Hovde, D. A. and Beestman, G. B. Pesticides, Formulations and Application Systems. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials.
Quimby, P. C. Jr., Zidack, N. K., Boyette, C. D., and Grey, W. E. 1999. A simple method for stabilizing and granulating fungi. Biocontrol Sci. Technol 9:58.
Saha, T. and Sen, S. K. 1992. Somatic embryogenesis in protoplast derived calli of cultivated jute, Corchorus capsularis L. Plant Cell Rep 10:633636.
Schisler, D. A., Jackson, M. A., and Bothast, R. J. 1991. Influence of nutrition during conidiation of Colletotrichum truncatum on conidial germination and efficacy in inciting disease in Sesbania exaltata . Phytopathology 81:587590.
Shabana, Y. M., Charudattan, R., DeValerio, J. T., and Elwakil, M. A. 1997. An evaluation of hydrophilic polymers for formulating the bioherbicide agents Alternaria cassiae and A. eichhorniae . Weed Technol 11:212220.
Stewart-Wade, S. M., Green, S., Boland, G. J., et al. 2002. Taraxacum officinale (Weber), dandelion (Asteraceae). Pages 427430. in Mason, P. G. and Huber, J. T. Biological Control Programmes in Canada 1981–2000. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CABI.
Walker, H. L. and Connick, W. J. 1983. Sodium alginate for production and formulation of mycoherbicides. Weed Sci 31:333338.
Watson, A. K. 2007. Sclerotinia minor—biocontrol target or agent? 205211. in Vurro, M. and Gressel, J. Novel Biotechnologies for Biocontrol Agent Enhancement and Management. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Zhang, W. and Watson, A. K. 1997. Effect of dew period and temperature on the ability of Exserohilum monoceras to cause seedling mortality of Echinochloa species. Plant Dis 81:629634.

Keywords

Increasing the Efficacy and Extending the Effective Application Period of a Granular Turf Bioherbicide by Covering with Jute Fabric

  • Mohammed H. Abu-Dieyeh (a1) and Alan K. Watson (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed