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Effect of Selected Pesticides on Survival of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae, a Bioherbicide for Round-leaved Mallow (Malva pusilla)

  • Nelson T. Grant (a1), Elizabeth Prusinkiewicz (a1), Roberte M. D. Makowski (a1), Britt Holmstrom-Ruddick (a1) and Knud Mortensen (a2)...

Abstract

Commercial formulations of 33 herbicides, 12 fungicides, and 16 adjuvants were evaluated for their toxic effects on germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae (C.g.m.) spores. At the recommended rates, none of the herbicides for grass weed control (diclofop, difenzoquat, fenoxaprop-ethyl, flamprop-methyl, and sethoxydim) or formulated herbicides registered for both broadleaf and grass weed control [diclofop plus bromoxynil (23:8), propanil, and propanil plus MCPA (7:2)] were compatible with C.g.m. spores. C.g.m. spore germination and appressorial formation recorded 24 h after exposure were totally inhibited by these herbicides. At recommended rates, herbicides for broadleaf weed control (2,4-D ester, 2,4-D amine, benazolin, bentazon, clopyralid, cyanazine, cyanazine plus MCPA (1:2), dicamba, dicamba plus MCPA (1:4), dicamba plus mecoprop plus MCPA (1:1:4.4), dicamba plus 2,4-D plus mecoprop (4.2:11:3), MCPA amine, MCPA-K, MCPA-Na, and metribuzin), caused no more than a 20% reduction in C.g.m. spore germination, and appressorial formation was not significantly reduced except by benazolin and metribuzin. Cyanazine and dicamba at recommended rates increased appressorial formation without reducing germination compared to the control. At lower concentrations, the other herbicides recommended for broadleaf weed control (2,4-DB, bromoxynil, bromoxynil plus MCPA (1:1), dichlorprop plus 2,4-D (1:1), imazethapyr, linuron, and picloram) were less toxic to C.g.m. spores. The fungicide triadimefon at recommended rate had no effect on C.g.m. spores. Dicloran reduced germination more than 50% at recommended rate and growth was distorted. At recommended rates, spore germination was inhibited by more than 90% with benomyl, carbathiin, chlorothalonil, iprodione, mancozeb, and thiophanate-methyl although germination increased as concentration declined. Spore germination was totally inhibited at all concentrations with ferbam, thiram, and captan. Exposure to the adjuvants—Agral 90, Alkasurf-0P-10, Atplus-555, Citowett Plus, Enhance, Renex 36, Triton XR, and X-77–inhibited C.g.m. spore germination and reduced spore production compared to the control. Spore germination was significantly higher in suspensions containing ammonium sulfate, Assist, Bio-veg, CD-407, and Tween 20, as well as with starch, sucrose, and water (control) than with the other adjuvants. Spore production was higher in suspensions containing starch and Bio-veg than in those with water and the other adjuvants.

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