Skip to main content Accessibility help

Transcriptomics of host-specific interactions in natural populations of the parasitic plant purple witchweed (Striga hermonthica)

  • Lua Lopez (a1), Emily S. Bellis (a2), Eric Wafula (a3), Sarah J. Hearne (a4) (a5), Loren Honaas (a6), Paula E. Ralph (a7), Michael P. Timko (a8), Nnanna Unachukwu (a9), Claude W. dePamphilis (a10) and Jesse R. Lasky (a11)...


Host-specific interactions can maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity in parasites that attack multiple host species. Host diversity, in turn, may promote parasite diversity by selection for genetic divergence or plastic responses to host type. The parasitic weed purple witchweed [Striga hermonthica (Delile) Benth.] causes devastating crop losses in sub-Saharan Africa and is capable of infesting a wide range of grass hosts. Despite some evidence for host adaptation and host-by-Striga genotype interactions, little is known about intraspecific Striga genomic diversity. Here we present a study of transcriptomic diversity in populations of S. hermonthica growing on different hosts (maize [Zea mays L.] vs. grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]). We examined gene expression variation and differences in allelic frequency in expressed genes of aboveground tissues from populations in western Nigeria parasitizing each host. Despite low levels of host-based genome-wide differentiation, we identified a set of parasite transcripts specifically associated with each host. Parasite genes in several different functional categories implicated as important in host–parasite interactions differed in expression level and allele on different hosts, including genes involved in nutrient transport, defense and pathogenesis, and plant hormone response. Overall, we provide a set of candidate transcripts that demonstrate host-specific interactions in vegetative tissues of the emerged parasite S. hermonthica. Our study shows how signals of host-specific processes can be detected aboveground, expanding the focus of host–parasite interactions beyond the haustorial connection.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Transcriptomics of host-specific interactions in natural populations of the parasitic plant purple witchweed (Striga hermonthica)
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Transcriptomics of host-specific interactions in natural populations of the parasitic plant purple witchweed (Striga hermonthica)
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Transcriptomics of host-specific interactions in natural populations of the parasitic plant purple witchweed (Striga hermonthica)
      Available formats


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Lua Lopez, Email:


Hide All
Ahmed, S, Stephen, GC, Roger, KB, Philip, MG (2009) Wind-borne insects mediate directional pollen transfer between desert fig trees 160 kilometers apart. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:2034220347
Albrecht, H, Yoder, JI, Phillips, DA (1999) Flavonoids promote haustoria formation in the root parasite Triphysaria versicolor. Plant Physiol 119:585592
Amusan, OI, Patrick, JR, Menkir, A, Housley, T, Ejeta, G (2008) Resistance to Striga hermonthica in a maize inbred line derived from Zea diploperennis. New Phytol 178:157166
Antonova, TS, Terborg, SJ (1996) The role of peroxidase in the resistance of sunflower against Orobanche cumana in Russia. Weed Res 36:113121
Archie, AE, Ezenwa, OV (2011) Population genetic structure and history of a generalist parasite infecting multiple sympatric host species. Int J Parasitol 41:8998
Ashburner, M, Ball, AC, Blake, JA, Botstein, D, Butler, H, Cherry, JM, Davis, AP, Dolinski, K, Dwight, SS, Eppig, JT, Harris, MA, Hill, DP, Issel-Tarver, L, Kasarskis, A, Lewis, S, et al. (2000) Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. Nat Genet 25:25
Atera, E, Itoh, K, Azuma, T, Ishii, T (2012) Farmers’ perception and constraints to the adoption of weed control option: the case of Striga asiatica in Malawi. J Agric Sci 4:5
Bailey, FS, Hinz, A, Kassen, R (2014) Adaptive synonymous mutations in an experimentally evolved Pseudomonas fluorescens population. Nat Commun 5:4076
Bandaranayake, PCG, Filappova, T, Tomilov, A, Tomilova, NB, Jamison-McClung, D, Ngo, Q, Inoue, K, Yoder, JI (2010) A single-electron reducing quinone oxidoreductase is necessary to induce haustorium development in the root parasitic plant Triphysaria. Plant Cell 22:14041419
Bashey, F (2015) Within-host competitive interactions as a mechanism for the maintenance of parasite diversity. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 370:20140301
Bethke, G, Thao, A, Xiong, G, Li, B, Soltis, NE, Hatsugai, N, Hillmer, RA, Katagiri, F, Kliebenstein, DJ, Pauly, M, Glazebrook, J (2016) Pectin biosynthesis is critical for cell wall integrity and immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 28:537556
Bolger, MA, Lohse, M, Usadel, B (2014) Trimmomatic: a flexible trimmer for illumina sequence data. Bioinformatics 30:21142120
Bourdin, B, Adenier, H, Perrin, Y (2007) Carnitine is associated with fatty acid metabolism in plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 45:926931
Bozkurt, ML, Muth, P, Parzies, HK, Haussmann, BIG (2015) Genetic diversity of East and West African Striga hermonthica populations and virulence effects on a contrasting set of sorghum cultivars. Weed Res 55:7181
Chamary, JV, Hurst, LD (2005) Evidence for selection on synonymous mutations affecting stability of mRNA secondary structure in mammals. Genome Biol 6:R75
Conesa, A, Götz, S (2008) Blast2GO: a comprehensive suite for functional analysis in plant genomics. Int J Plant Genomics 2008:619832
Conesa, A, Götz, S, García-Gómez, JM, Terol, J, Talón, M, Robles, M (2005) Blast2GO: a universal tool for annotation, visualization and analysis in functional genomics research. Bioinformatics 21:36743676
Conn, CE, Bythell-Douglas, R, Neumann, D, Yoshida, S, Whittington, B, Westwood, JH, Shirasu, K, Bond, CS, Dyer, KA, Nelson, DC (2015) Convergent evolution of strigolactone perception enabled host detection in parasitic plants. Science 349:540543
Cui, J, Bahrami, AK, Pringle, EG, Hernandez-Guzman, G, Bender, CL, Pierce, NE, Ausubel, FM (2005) Pseudomonas syringae manipulates systemic plant defenses against pathogens and herbivores. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:17911796
Durrant, WE, Dong, X (2004) Systemic acquired resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 42:185209.
Ejeta, G (2007) Breeding for Striga resistance in sorghum: exploitation of an intricate host–parasite biology. Crop Sci 47:216227
Finn, RD, Attwood, TK, Babbitt, PC, Bateman, A, Bork, P, Bridge, AJ, Chang, H-Y, Dosztányi, Z, El-Gebali, S, Fraser, M, Gough, J, Haft, D, Holliday, GL, Huang, H, Huang, X, et al. (2017) InterPro in 2017–beyond protein family and domain annotations. Nucleic Acids Res 45:D190D199
Frank, SA (1993) Evolution of host-parasite diversity. Evolution 47:17211732
Frost, DL, Gurney, AL, Press, MC, Scholes, JD (1997) Striga hermonthica reduces photosynthesis in sorghum: the importance of stomatal limitations and a potential role for ABA? Plant Cell Environ 20:483492
Fu, ZQ, Dong, X (2013) Systemic acquired resistance: turning local infection into global defense. Annu Rev Plant Biol 64:839863
Geiger, R (1954) Klassifikation der klimate nach W. Köppen. Pages 603607 in Landolt, HH, Börnstein, R, eds. Zahlenwerte Und Funktionen Aus Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik Und Technik, Alte Serie. Berlin: Springer
Gene Ontology Consortium (2017) Expansion of the Gene Ontology knowledgebase and resources. Nucleic Acids Res 45:331338
Grabherr, MG, Brian, JH, Yassour, M, Levin, JZ, Thompson, DA, Amit, I, Adiconis, X, Fan, L, Raychowdhury, R, Zeng, Q, Chen, Z, Mauceli, E, Hacohen, N, Gnirke, A, Rhind, N, et al. (2011) Full-length transcriptome assembly from RNA-Seq data without a reference genome. Nature Biotechnol 29:644
Griffiths-Jones, S, Bateman, A, Marshall, M, Khanna, A, Eddy, SR (2003) Rfam: an RNA family database. Nucleic Acids Res 31:439–41
Guo, M, Tian, F, Wamboldt, Y, Alfano, JR (2009) The majority of the type III effector inventory of Pseudomonas syringae Pv. Tomato DC3000 can suppress plant immunity. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 22:10691080
Haussmann, BIG, Hess, DE, Omanya, GO, Folkertsma, RT, Reddy, BVS, Kayentao, M, Welz, HG, Geiger, HH (2004) Genomic regions influencing resistance to the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica in two recombinant inbred populations of sorghum. Theor Appl Genet 109:10051016
Heese, M, Gansel, X, Sticher, L, Wick, P, Grebe, M, Granier, F, Jürgens, G (2001) Functional characterization of the KNOLLE-interacting t-SNARE AtSNAP33 and its role in plant cytokinesis. J Cell Biol 155:239250
Hess, DE, Ejeta, G, Butler, LG (1992) Selecting sorghum genotypes expressing a quantitative biosynthetic trait that confers resistance to Striga. Phytochemistry 31:493497
Hoffman, GE, Schadt, EE (2016) VariancePartition: interpreting drivers of variation in complex gene expression studies. BMC Bioinformatics 17:483
Honaas, LA, Wafula, EK, Yang, Z, Der, JP, Wickett, NJ, Altman, NS, Taylor, CG, Yoder, JI, Timko, MP, Westwood, JH, dePamphilis, CW (2013) Functional genomics of a generalist parasitic plant: laser microdissection of host–parasite interface reveals host-specific patterns of parasite gene expression. BMC Plant Biol 13:9
Hunt, RC, Simhadri, VL, Iandoli, M, Sauna, ZE, Kimchi-Sarfaty, C (2014). Exposing synonymous mutations. Trends Genet 30:308321
Ichihashi, Y, Mutuku, JM, Yoshida, S, Shirasu, K (2015) Transcriptomics exposes the uniqueness of parasitic plants. Brief Funct Genomics 14:275282
Ingvarsson, PK (2010) Natural selection on synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations shapes patterns of polymorphism in Populus tremula. Mol Biol Evol 27:650660
Kaci-Chaouch, T, Verneau, O, Desdevises, Y (2008) Host specificity is linked to intraspecific variability in the genus Lamellodiscus (Monogenea). Parasitology 135:607616
Kanehisa, M, Goto, S (2000) KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Nucleic Acids Res 28:2730
Karger, DN, Conrad, O, Böhner, J, Kawohl, T, Kreft, H, Soria-Auza, RW, Zimmermann, NE, Linder, PH, Kessler, M (2017) Climatologies at high resolution for the earth’s land surface areas. Sci Data 4:170122
Konczal, M, Koteja, P, Stuglik, MT, Radwan, J, Babik, W (2013) Accuracy of allele frequency estimation using pooled RNA-Seq. Mol Ecol Res 14:381392
Koyama, ML (2000) Genetic variability of Striga hermonthica and effect of resistant cultivars on Striga population dynamics. Pages 247260 in Rattunde, HFW, Geiger, HH, Haussman, BIG, Hess, DE, Koyama, ML, Grivet, L, eds. Breeding for Striga Resistance in Cereals. Weikersheim, Germany: Margraf Verlag
Kudla, G, Murray, AW, Tollervey, D, Plotkin, JB (2009) Coding-sequence determinants of gene expression in Escherichia coli. Science 324:255258
Lajeunesse, MJ, Forbes, MR (2002) Host range and local parasite adaptation. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 269:703710
Lane, JA, Child, DV, Moore, THM, Arnold, GM, Bailey, JA (1997) Phenotypic characterization of resistance in Zea diploperennis to Striga. Maydica 42:4551
Lawand, S, Dorne, AJ, Long, D, Coupland, G, Mache, R, Carol, P (2002) Arabidopsis A BOUT DE SOUFFLE, which is homologous with mammalian carnitine acyl carrier, is required for postembryonic growth in the light. Plant Cell 14:21612173
Lechat, MM, Pouvreau, JB, Péron, T, Gauthier, M, Montiel, G, Véronési, C, Todoroki, Y, Le Bizec, B, Monteau, F, Macherel, D, Simier, P, Thoiron, S, Delavault, P (2012) PrCYP707A1, an ABA catabolic gene, is a key component of Phelipanche ramosa seed germination in response to the strigolactone analogue GR24. J Exp Bot 63:53115322
Leggett, HC, Benmayor, R, Hodgson, DJ, Buckling, A (2013) Experimental evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in a parasite. Curr Biol 23:139142
Li, H, Durbin, R (2009) Fast and accurate short read alignment with Burrows-Wheeler transform. Bioinformatics 25:17541760
Li, H, Handsaker, B, Wysoker, A, Fennell, T, Ruan, J, Homer, N, Marth, G, Abecasis, G, Durbin, R, and 1000 Genome Project Data Processing Subgroup (2009) The sequence alignment/map format and SAMtools. Bioinformatics 25:20782079
Liu, N, Sun, Y, Pei, Y, Zhang, X, Wang, P, Li, X, Li, F, Hou, Y (2018) A pectin methylesterase inhibitor enhances resistance to Verticillium Wilt. Plant Physiol 176:22022220
Liu, Y (2012) Comparing and contrasting two plant pathogens provide a unique window into the differences in the innate immune responses between dicots and monocots. Ph.D dissertation. Atlanta, GA: Emory University. 173 p
Losner-Goshen, D, Portnoy, V, Mayer, A, Joel, D (1998) Pectolytic activity by the haustorium of the parasitic plant Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae) in host roots. Ann Bot 81:319326
Maiti, RK, Ramaiah, KV, Bisen, SS, Chidley, VL (1984) A comparative study of the haustorial development of Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze on Sorghum cultivars. Ann Bot 54:447457
McGill, BJ, Enquist, BJ, Weiher, E, Westoby, M (2006) Rebuilding community ecology from functional traits. Trends Ecol Evol 21:178185
Musselman, LJ (1980) The biology of Striga, Orobanche, and other root-parasitic weeds. Annu Rev Phytopathol 18:463489
Mutinda, SM, Masanga, J, Mutuku, JM, Runo, S, Alakonya, A (2018) KSTP 94, an open-pollinated maize variety has postattachment resistance to purple witchweed (Striga hermonthica). Weed Sci 66:525529
Mutuku, JM, Yoshida, S, Shimizu, T, Ichihashi, Y, Wakatake, T, Takahashi, A, Seo, M, Shirasu, K (2015) The WRKY45-dependent signaling pathway is required for resistance against Striga hermonthica parasitism. Plant Physiol 168:11521163
Nei, M (1977) F-statistics and analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Ann Hum Genet 41:225233
Ngo, QA, Albrecht, H, Tsuchimatsu, T, Grossniklaus, U (2013) The differentially regulated genes TvQR1 and TvPirin of the parasitic plant Triphysaria exhibit distinctive natural allelic diversity. BMC Plant Biol 13:28
Nishiguchi, M, Yoshida, K, Sumizono, T, Tazaki, K (2002) A receptor-like protein kinase with a lectin-like domain from Lombardy poplar: gene expression in response to wounding and characterization of phosphorylation activity. Mol Genet Genomics 267:506514
Oksanen, J, Blanchet, GF, Kindt, R, Legendre, P, Minchin, P, O’Hara, RB, Simpson, G, Solymos, P, Stevens, MHH, Wagner, HH (2013) Vegan: Community ecology package. R Package v. 2.0–10.
Olivier, A, Glaszmann, JC, Lanaud, C, Leroux, GD (1998) Population structure, genetic diversity and host specificity of the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Scrophulariaceae) in Sahel. Plant Syst Evol. 209:3345
Pageau, K, Simier, P, Le Bizec, B, Robins, RJ, Fer, A (2003) Characterization of nitrogen relationships between Sorghum bicolor and the root–hemiparasitic angiosperm Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. using K15NO3 as isotopic tracer. J Exp Bot 54:789–99
Panter, RA, Mudd, JB (1969) Carnitine levels in some higher plants. FEBS Lett 5:169170
Patro, R, Duggal, G, Love, MI, Irizarry, RA, Kingsford, C (2017) Salmon provides fast and bias-aware quantification of transcript expression. Nat Methods 14:417419
Pérez-de-Luque, A (2013) Haustorium invasion into host tissues. Pages 7586 in Joel, DM, Gressel, J, Musselman, LJ, eds. Parasitic Orobanchaceae: Parasitic Mechanisms and Control Strategies. Berlin: Springer
Pouvreau, JB, Gaudin, Z, Auger, B, Lechat, MM, Gauthier, M, Delavault, P, Simier, P (2013) A high-throughput seed germination assay for root parasitic plants. Plant Methods 9:32
Pruitt, KD, Tatusova, T, Maglott, DR (2007) NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq): a curated non-redundant sequence database of genomes, transcripts and proteins. Nucleic Acids Res 35:6165
Ranjan, A, Ichihashi, Y, Farhi, M, Zumstein, K, Townsley, B, David-Schwartz, R, Sinha, NR (2014) De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of the parasitic weed dodder identifies genes associated with plant parasitism. Plant Physiol 166:11861199
Riopel, Jl, Timko, MP (1992) Signals and regulation in the development of Striga and other parasitic angiosperms. Pages 493507 in Verma, DPS, ed. Molecular Signals in Plant-Microbe Communications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Robinson, MD, McCarthy, DJ, Smyth, GK (2010) EdgeR: a bioconductor package for differential expression analysis of digital gene expression data. Bioinformatics 26:139140
Rodenburg, J, Demont, M, Zwart, SJ, Bastiaans, L (2016) Parasitic weed incidence and related economic losses in rice in Africa. Agric Ecosyst Environ 235:306317
Roppolo, D, Boeckmann, B, Pfister, A, Boutet, E, Rubio, MC, Dénervaud-Tendon, V, Vermeer, JE, Gheyselinck, J, Xenarios, I, Geldner, N (2014) Functional and evolutionary analysis of the CASPARIAN STRIP MEMBRANE DOMAIN PROTEIN family. Plant Physiol 165:17091722
Runo, S, Kuria, EK (2018) Habits of a highly successful cereal killer, Striga. PLoS Pathog 14:e1006731
Safa, SB, Jones, BMG, Musselman, LJ (1984) Mechanisms favouring outbreeding in Striga hermonthica (Scrofulariaceae). New Phytol 96:299305
Saucet, SB, Shirasu, K (2016) Molecular parasitic plant–host interactions. PLoS Pathog 12:e1005978
Singh, A, Singh, M (1993) Cell wall degrading enzymes in Orobanche aegyptiaca and its host Brassica campestris. Physiol Plant 89:177181
Spallek, T, Mutuku, M, Shirasu, K (2013) The genus Striga: a witch profile. Mol Plant Pathol 14:861869
Swarbrick, PJ, Huang, K, Liu, G, Slate, J, Press, MC, Scholes, JD (2008) Global patterns of gene expression in rice cultivars undergoing a susceptible or resistant interaction with the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. New Phytol 179:515529
Swenson, NG, Iida, Y, Howe, R, Wolf, A, Umaña, MN, Petprakob, K, Turner, BL, Ma, K (2017) Tree co-occurrence and transcriptomic response to drought. Nat Commun 8:1996
Tomilov, AA, Tomilova, NB, Abdallah, I, Yoder, JI (2005) Localized hormone fluxes and early haustorium development in the hemiparasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor. Plant Physiol 138:14691480
Unachukwu, NN, Menkir, A, Rabbi, IY, Oluoch, M, Muranaka, S, Elzein, A, Odhiambo, G, Farombi, EO, Gedil, M (2017) Genetic diversity and population structure of Striga hermonthica populations from Kenya and Nigeria. Weed Res 57:293302
Vogler, RK, Ejeta, G, Butler, LG (1996) Inheritance of low production of Striga germination stimulant in sorghum. Crop Sci 36:11851191
Watson, IA (1970) Changes in virulence and population shifts in plant pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 8:209230
Welsh, B, Mohamed, KI (2011) Genetic diversity of Striga hermonthica populations in Ethiopia: evaluating the role of geography and host specificity in shaping population structure. Int J Plant Sci 172:773782
Westwood, JH, dePamphilis, CW, Das, M, Fernández-Aparicio, M, Honaas, LA, Timko, MP, Wafula, EK, Wickett, NJ, Yoder, JI (2012) The Parasitic Plant Genome Project: new tools for understanding the biology of Orobanche and Striga. Weed Sci 60:295306
Wick, P, Gansel, X, Oulevey, C, Page, V, Studer, I, Dürst, M, Sticher, L (2003) The expression of the T-SNARE AtSNAP33 is induced by pathogens and mechanical stimulation. Plant Physiol 132:343351
Yang, Z, Wafula, EK, Honaas, LA, Zhang, H, Das, M, Fernandez-Aparicio, M, Huang, K, Bandaranayake, PCG, Wu, B, Der, JP, Clarke, CD, Ralph, PE, Landherr, L, Altman, NS, Timko, MP, et al. (2015). Comparative transcriptome analyses reveal core parasitism genes and suggest gene duplication and repurposing as sources of structural novelty. Mol Bio Evol 32:767790
Young, ND, Debellé, F, Oldroyd, GED, Geurts, R, Cannon, SB, Udvardi, MK, Benedito, VA, Mayer, KF, Gouzy, J, Schoof, H, Van de Peer, Y, Proost, S, Cook, DR, Meyers, BC, Spannagl, M, et al. (2011) The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses. Nature 480:520
Zdobnov, EM, Tegenfeldt, F, Kuznetsov, D, Waterhouse, RM, Simão, FA, Ioannidis, P, Seppey, M, Loetscher, A, Kriventseva, EV (2017) OrthoDB v9.1: cataloging evolutionary and functional annotations for animal, fungal, plant, archaeal, bacterial and viral orthologs. Nucleic Acids Res 45:744749
Zheng, X, Levine, D, Shen, J, Gogarten, SM, Laurie, C, Weir, BS (2012a) A high-performance computing toolset for relatedness and principal component analysis of SNP data. Bioinformatics 28:33263328
Zheng, XY, Spivey, NW, Zeng, W, Liu, PP, Fu, ZQ, Klessig, DF, He, SY, Dong, X (2012b) Coronatine promotes Pseudomonas syringae virulence in plants by activating a signaling cascade that inhibits salicylic acid accumulation. Cell Host Microbe 11:587596
Zouari, I, Salvioli, A, Chialva, M, Novero, M, Miozzi, L, Tenore, GG, Bagnaresi, P, Bonfante, P (2014) From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism. BMC Genomics 15:221


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Lopez et al. supplementary material
Lopez et al. supplementary material 1

 Unknown (61 KB)
61 KB

Transcriptomics of host-specific interactions in natural populations of the parasitic plant purple witchweed (Striga hermonthica)

  • Lua Lopez (a1), Emily S. Bellis (a2), Eric Wafula (a3), Sarah J. Hearne (a4) (a5), Loren Honaas (a6), Paula E. Ralph (a7), Michael P. Timko (a8), Nnanna Unachukwu (a9), Claude W. dePamphilis (a10) and Jesse R. Lasky (a11)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed