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Soil Persistence of Herbicides for Corn, Sorghum, and Soybeans during the Year of Application

  • O. C. Burnside (a1) and M. E. Schultz (a1)

Abstract

Herbicides used in corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were applied in the spring and their persistence into late summer was determined during 1974 to 1976. Composite soil samples from the top 5 cm of field plots were taken each August and bioassayed in the greenhouse. Bioassay species used were winter wheat [Triticum aestivum L.) and soybeans for herbicides used in corn and sorghum, and winter wheat and white mustard (Brassica hirta Moench) for herbicides used in soybeans. Soil persistence of triazine herbicides caused more injury to winter wheat, soybeans, and white mustard than any other class of herbicides tested. Atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine] showed the most soil persistence of the five triazines evaluated. At normal field application rates, herbicides other than the triazines showed little injury to the bioassay plants. Soil persistence of herbicides was further reduced when combinations of reduced rates of each herbicide were utilized. Herbicides used for spring applications in corn showed more soil persistence in August than did the herbicides for sorghum, while herbicides for soybeans generally were least persistent. Postemergence herbicide applications resulted in more injury in bioassay species than preplant incorporated or preemergence applications. Persistence of some herbicides will restrict certain options to the grower such as changing crops in case of crop failure, fall planting of winter wheat, double cropping, or certain crop rotations.

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Soil Persistence of Herbicides for Corn, Sorghum, and Soybeans during the Year of Application

  • O. C. Burnside (a1) and M. E. Schultz (a1)

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