Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Shade avoidance cues reduce Beta vulgaris growth

  • Thomas J. Schambow (a1), Albert T. Adjesiwor (a1), Louise Lorent (a1) and Andrew R. Kniss (a2)

Abstract

Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted from 2013 to 2015 at the University of Wyoming to evaluate the response of Beta vulgaris (L.) to reflected-light quality. Large-pail field studies included a factorial arrangement of three varieties of B. vulgaris (sugar beet, table beet, and Swiss chard) and reflected-light treatments (using either colored plastic mulch, grass, or bare-soil controls). Greenhouse studies included sugar beet as influenced by either grass or soil surroundings. In all studies, grass was grown in separate containers from B. vulgaris, so there was no root interaction. Grass was clipped regularly to prevent shading and competition for sunlight. Reflected light from different-colored plastic mulches (red, blue, green, black, clear) did not affect B. vulgaris growth. However, reflected light from the grass reduced the number of leaves in all B. vulgaris varieties such that there were 10 to 14 fewer leaves in B. vulgaris surrounded by grass compared with the soil treatment at 90 d after planting in the field study. Shade avoidance cues from surrounding grass reduced B. vulgaris total leaf area by 49% to 66%, leaf biomass by 21% to 30%, and root biomass by 70% to 72%. Similar results were observed in greenhouse experiments, where the grass treatment reduced sugar beet leaf biomass by 48% to 57% and root biomass by 35% to 64%. Shade avoidance cues have the potential to significantly reduce B. vulgaris yield, even in the absence of direct resource competition from weeds.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Shade avoidance cues reduce Beta vulgaris growth
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Shade avoidance cues reduce Beta vulgaris growth
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Shade avoidance cues reduce Beta vulgaris growth
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Andrew R. Kniss, Email:akniss@uwyo.edu

References

Hide All
Ballaré, CL, Sanchez, RA, Scopel, AL, Casal, JJ, Ghersa, CM (1987) Early detection of neighbor plants by phytochrome perception of spectral changes in reflected sunlight. Plant Cell Environ 10:551557
Ballaré, CL, Scopel, AL, Sánchez, RA (1990) Far-red radiation reflected from adjacent leaves: an early signal of competition in plant canopies. Science 247:329333
Casal, JJ (2013) Photoreceptor signaling networks in plant responses to shade. Annu Rev Plant Biol 64:403427
Craig, DS, Runkle, ES (2013) A moderate to high red to far-red light ratio from light-emitting diodes controls flowering of short-day plants. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 138:167172
Dawson, JH (1977) Competition of late-emerging weeds with sugarbeets. Weed Sci 25:168170.
Green-Tracewicz, E, Page, ER, Swanton, CJ (2011) Shade avoidance in soybean reduces branching and increases plant-to-plant variability in biomass and yield per plant. Weed Sci 59:4349
Holen, CD (1998) Effects of Environment on Sugarbeet Injury from Desmedipham and a Growing Degree Day Equation for Predicting Early Sugarbeet Leaf Stages. Ph.D dissertation. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 74 p
Hopkins, WG, Huüner, NPA (2008) Introduction to Plant Physiology. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 503 p
Kasperbauer, MJ (1987) Far-red light reflection from green leaves and effects on phytochrome mediated assimilate partitioning under field conditions. Plant Physiol 85:350354
Kasperbauer, MJ, Karlen, DL (1994) Plant spacing and reflected far-red light effects on phytochrome-regulated photosynthate allocation in corn seedlings. Crop Sci 34:15641569
McGrath, JM, Trebbi, D (2007) Genetics of water content in sugarbeet roots. Proc Am Soc Sugar Beet Tech 44:135
Milford, GFJ (2006) Plant structure and crop physiology. Pages 3049 in Draycott, AP, ed. Sugar Beet. Oxford, UK: Blackwell
Page, ER, Liu, WD, Cerrudo, D, Lee, EA, Swanton, CJ (2011) Shade avoidance influences stress tolerance in maize. Weed Sci 59:326334
Page, ER, Tollenaar, M, Lee, EA, Lukens, L, Swanton, CJ (2009) Does the shade avoidance response contribute to the critical period for weed control in maize (Zea mays)? Weed Res 49:563571
Page, ER, Tollenaar, M, Lee, EA, Lukens, L, Swanton, CJ (2010) Shade avoidance: an integral component of crop-weed competition. Weed Res 50:281288
Poorter, H, Niklas, KJ, Reich, PB, Oleksyn, J, Poot, P, Mommer, L (2012) Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. New Phytol 193:3050
R Core Team (2016) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Consulting. https://www.R-project.org. Accessed: October 11, 2016
Rajcan, I, Chandler, KJ, Swanton, CJ (2004) Red-far-red ratio of reflected light: a hypothesis of why early-season weed control is important in corn. Weed Sci 52:774778
Reich, PB (2002) Root–shoot relations. Pages 205220 in Waisel, Y, Eshel, A, Kafkafi, U, eds. Plant Roots: The Hidden Half. 3rd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
Ritz, C, Baty, F, Streibig, JC, Gerhard, D (2015) Dose-response analysis using R. PLoS One 10:e0146021
Roig-Villanova, I, Martinez-Garcia, JF (2016) Plant responses to vegetation proximity: a whole life avoiding shade. Front Plant Sci 7:110
Schaeufele, WR (1986) Effect of high-growing weed (Chenopodium album) on development and yield of sugar beet. Z Pflanzenkr Pflanzenpathol Pflanzenschutz 93:125135
Shafii, B, Price, WJ, Swensen, JB, Murray, GA (1991) Nonlinear estimation of growth curve models for germination data analysis. Pages 1942 in Proceedings of the Third Conference on Applied Statistics in Agriculture. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University. doi: 10.4148/2475-7772.1415
Smith, H (1982) Light quality, photoperception, and plant strategy. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 33:481518
Smith, H (1992) The ecological functions of the phytochrome family—clues to a transgenic program of crop improvement. Photochem Photobiol 56:815822
Thornley, J (1972) A balanced quantitative model for root: shoot ratios in vegetative plants. Ann Bot 36:431441
Vermeulen, PJ, During, HJ (2010) Genotype-density interactions in a clonal, rosette-forming plant: cost of increased height growth? Ann Bot 105:7988
Weinig, C, Delph, LF (2001) Phenotypic plasticity early in life constrains developmental responses later. Evolution 55:930936
Winner, C (1993) History of the crop. Pages 135 in Cooke, DA, Scott, RK, eds. The Sugar Beet Crop: Science into Practice. London: Chapman and Hall
Zimdahl, RL, Fertig, SN (1967) Influence of weed competition on sugar beets. Weeds 15:336339

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Shade avoidance cues reduce Beta vulgaris growth

  • Thomas J. Schambow (a1), Albert T. Adjesiwor (a1), Louise Lorent (a1) and Andrew R. Kniss (a2)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.