Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Review: Physiological Approaches to the Improvement of Chemical Control of Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica)

  • Uliana B. Bashtanova (a1), K. Paul Beckett (a2) and Timothy J. Flowers (a1)

Abstract

Japanese knotweed is an aggressive alien species in Europe, North America, and Australia, causing a range of environmental problems. Eradication of Japanese knotweed is proving to be a difficult task, because the plant is able to propagate generatively by intra- and interspecific hybridization, and vegetatively from shoot and tiny rhizome pieces. Despite the economic consequences of Japanese knotweed on natural and built environments, its physiology is not yet fully understood; especially important are sink-source relations between old and young parts of the rhizome and growth of lateral and latent rhizome buds. Current methods of chemical control include three types of phloem-mobile herbicides, such as glyphosate, imazapyr, and synthetic auxins. These herbicides have limitations on their use, and all fail to eradicate the plant completely, for the reasons discussed in this review. Our aim is to suggest prospective approaches to enable chemical eradication: use of signals to induce controlled growth and development of quiescent rhizome buds; use of phytohormones, sugars, and light to increase allocation of phloem-mobile herbicides to the rhizome; use of xylem-mobile herbicides to exterminate the old rhizome parts; and use of different phloem-mobile herbicides at different growth stages.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: ulyanochka@yahoo.com

References

Hide All
Adachi, N., Terashima, I., and Takahashi, M. 1996a. Central die-back of monoclonal stands of Reynoutria japonica in an early stage of primary succession on Mount Fuji. Ann. Bot. 77:477486.
Adachi, N., Terashima, I., and Takahashi, M. 1996b. Mechanism of central die-back of Reynoutria japonica in the volcanic desert on Mt. Fuji. A stochastic model analysis of rhizome growth. Ann. Bot. 78:169179.
Adachi, N., Terashima, I., and Takahashi, M. 1996c. Nitrogen translocation via rhizome systems in monoclonal stands of Reynoutria japonica in an oligotropic desert on Mt. Fuji: field experiments. Ecol. Res. 11:175186.
Ahrens, J. 1975. Preliminary results with glyphosate for control of Polygonum cuspidatum . Proc. Northeast. Weed Sci. Soc. 29:326.
Amrhein, N., Deus, B., Gehrke, P., and Steinrucken, H. 1980. The site of inhibition of the shikimate pathway by glyphosate. Interference of glyphosate with chorismate formation in vivo and in vitro . Plant Physiol. 66:830834.
Bailey, J. 1994. Reproductive biology and fertility of Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed) and its hybrids in the British Isles. Pages 141158. In de Waal, L., Child, L., Wade, P., and Brock, J. Ecology and Management of Invasive Riverside Plants. Chichester, UK John Wiley.
Bailey, J. 1999. The Japanese knotweed invasion of Europe: the potential for further evolution in non-native regions. Pages 2737. In Yano, E., Matsuo, K., Shiyomi, M., and Andow, D. Biological Invasion of Ecosystems by Pests and Beneficial Organisms. Tsukuba, Japan NIAES Series 3.
Bailey, J. 2001. Fallopia × conollyana the railway-yard knotweed. Watsonia. 23:539541.
Bailey, J. 2003. Japanese knotweed s.l. at home and abroad. Pages 183196. In Child, L., Brock, J., Brundu, G., Prach, K., Pysek, P., Wade, P., and Williamson, M. Plant Invasions: Ecological Threats and Management Solution. Leiden, The Netherlands Backhuys Publishers.
Bailey, J. and Wisskirchen, R. 2006. The distribution and origins of Fallopia × bohemica (Polygonaceae) in Europe. Nordic J. Bot. 24:173199.
Ballard, T., Foley, M., and Bauman, T. 1995. Absorbtion, translocation, and metabolism of imazethapyr in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisifolia) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida). Weed Sci. 43:572577.
Bariuan, J., Reddy, K., and Wills, G. 1999. Glyphosate injury, rainfastness, absorption, and translocation in purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus). Weed Technol. 13:112119.
Barney, J., Tharayil, N., DiTommaso, A., and Bhowmik, P. 2006. The biology of invasive alien plants in Canada. 5. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. [= Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr.]. Can. J. Plant Sci. 86:887905.
Baur, J., Bovey, R., and Veech, J. 1977. Growth response in sorghum and wheat induced by glyphosate. Weed Sci. 25:238240.
Beerling, D. 1990. The ecology and control of Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica Houtt.) and Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera Royle) on riverbanks in South Wales. . Cardiff, UK University of Wales.
Beerling, D., Bailey, J., and Conolly, A. 1994. Biological flora of the British Isles. Fallopia Japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene. J. Ecol. 82:959979.
Bimova, K., Mandak, B., and Pysek, P. 2003. Experimental study of vegetative regeneration in four invasive Reynoutria taxa (Polygonaceae). Plant Ecol. 166:111.
Boeger, P. and Sandmann, G. 1998. Carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor herbicides—mode of action and resistance mechanism. Pestic. Outlook. 9:2935.
Borzenkova, R., Sobyanina, E., Pozdeeva, A., and Yashkov, M. 1998. Effect of phytohormones on starch-synthesizing capacity in growing potato tubers. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 45:472480.
Bram, M. and McNair, J. 2004. Seed germinability and its seasonal onset of Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum). Weed Sci. 52:759767.
Chancelor, R. 1970. The effect of 2-chlorethylphosphonic acid and chlorflurecol-methyl upon the sprouting of Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. rhizomes. Pages 254260. in. Proceedings of the 10th British Weed Conference.
Chao, J., Quick, W., Hsiao, A., and Xie, H. 1994. Effect of imazethabenz on histology and hystochemistry of polysaccharides in the main shoot of wild oat (Avena fatua). Weed Sci. 42:345–342.
Child, L. and Wade, M. 2000. The Japanese Knotweed Manual. The Management and Control of an Invasive Alien Weed. Chichester, UK Packard.
Child, L., Wade, P., and Wagner, M. 1998. Cost effective control of Fallopia japonica using combinations of treatments. Pages 143154. In Starfinger, U., Edwards, K., Kowarik, I., and Williamson, M. Plant Invasion: Ecological Mechanisms and Human Responses. Leiden, Netherlands Backhuys.
Claassens, M., Verhees, J., Plas, L., Krol, A., and Vreugdenhil, D. 2005. Ethanol breaks dormancy of the potato tube apical bud. J. Exp. Bot. 56:25152525.
Cole, D., Dodge, A., and Caseley, J. 1980. Some biochemical effects of glyphosate on plant meristem. J. Exp. Bot. 31:16651674.
Coupland, D. and Casely, J. 1975. Reduction of silica and increase in tillering induced in Agropyron repens by glyphosate. J. Exp. Bot. 26:136144.
Cudney, D. 1996. Why Herbicides Are Selective. In Symposium Proceedings of the California Exotic Pest Plant Council. http://www.cal-ipc.org/symposia/archive/1996_proceedings.php. Accessed: March 1, 2007.
[DEFRA] Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK 2003. Review of Non-Native Species Policy. Report of the Working Group. DEFRA Publications. http://www.defra.gov.uk/wildlife-countryside/resprog/findings/non-native/index.htm. Accessed: March 1, 2007.
Dewar, A., Haylock, L., May, M., Beane, J., and Perry, R. 2000. Glyphosate applied to genetically modified herbicide-tolerant sugar beet and “volunteer” potatoes reduces population of potato cyst nematodes and the number and size of daughter tubers. Ann. Appl. Biol. 136:179187.
Drozdova, I., Bondar, V., Bukhov, N., Kotov, A., Kotova, L., Maevskaya, S., and Mokronosov, A. 2001. Effects of light spectral quality on morphogenesis and source-sink relations in radish plants. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 48:415420.
Environment Agency 2006. Managing Japanese Knotweed on Development Sites: The Knotweed Code of Practice. http://www.environment-agency.gov/uk/static/documents/leisure/japnkot_1_a_1463028.pdf. Accessed: September 13, 2009.
Figueroa, P. 1989. Japanese knotweed herbicide screening trial applied as a roadside spray. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci. 42:288298.
Forman, J. and Kesseli, R. 2003. Sexual reproduction in the invasive species Fallopia japonica (Polygonaceae). Am. J. Bot. 90:586592.
Fritz, V., Hebel, J., Borowski, A., and Hung, P. 1991. Ethephon and 2,4-D do not improve periderm colour and may decrease yield in red-skinned Norland potato. HortScience. 26:553555.
Geiger, D. and Bestman, H. 1990. Self-limitation of herbicide mobility by phytotoxic action. Weed Sci. 38:324329.
Geiger, D., Kapitan, S., and Tucci, M. 1986. Glyphosate inhibits photosynthesis and allocation of carbon to starch in sugar beet leaves. Plant Physiol. 82:468472.
Gougler, J. and Geiger, D. 1981. Uptake and distribution of N-phosphomethylglycine in sugar beet plants. Plant Physiol. 68:668672.
Green, S. 2003. A review of the potential for the use of bioherbicides to control forest weeds in the UK. Forestry. 76:285298.
Grimsby, J., Tsirelson, D., Gammon, M., and Kesseli, R. 2007. Genetic diversity and clonal vs. sexual reproduction in Fallopia spp. (Polygonaceae). Am. J. Bot. 94:957964.
Guivarc'h, A., Rembur, J., Goetz, M., Roitsch, T., et al. 2002. Local expression of the ipt gene in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. SR1) axillary buds establishes a role for cytokinins in tuberization and sink formation. J. Exp. Bot. 53:621629.
Haidar, M., Sidahmed, M., Darwish, R., and Lafta, A. 2005. Selective control of Orobanche ramose in potato with rimsulfuron and sub-lethal doses of glyphosate. Crop Prot. 24:743747.
Hellmann, H., Barker, L., Funck, D., and Frommer, W. 2000. The regulation of assimilate allocation and transport. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 27:583594.
Hoagland, D., Duke, S., and Elmore, C. 1979. Effect of glyphosate on methabolism of phenolic compounds. III. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, free amino acids, soluble protein and hydroxyphenolic compounds in axes of dark-grown soybeans. Physiol. Plant. 46:357366.
Hollingsworth, M. and Bailey, J. 2000. Evidence for massive clonal growth in the invasive weed Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 133:463472.
Hunter, J., Hsiao, A., and McIntyre, G. 1993. Effect of nitrogen on the glyphosate-induced inhibition of rhizome bud growth in quackgrass (Elytrigia repens). Weed Sci. 41:426433.
Inderjit, , and Nishimura, H. 1999. Effect of the anthraquinones emodin and physcion on availability of selected soil inorganic ions. Ann. Appl. Biol. 135:425429.
Kloppenburg, D. and Hall, J. 1990. Effect of formulation and translocation of clopyralid in Cirsium arvense (L) Scop and Polygonum convolvulus L. Weed Res. 30:920.
Lawrie, J. and Clay, D. 1993. Effect of ethephon pre-treatment on the response of Elymus repens to fluazifop-butyl. Weed Res. 33:375382.
Lay, M. and Niland, A. 1983. The herbicide mode of action of R-40244 and its absorbtion by plants. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 19:337343.
Lecerf, A., Patfield, D., Boiche, A., Riipinen, M., Chauvet, E., and Dobson, M. 2007. Stream ecosystems respond to riparian invasion by Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica). Canadian J. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 64:12731283.
Loresco, M., Chapman, D., and Cousens, R. 2004. Translocation of 14CO2 and 14C-deoxyglucose in bracken (Pteridium esculentum Forst.f.Cokayne): implication for herbicide efficacy. Philippine Agric. Sci. 87:417426.
MacDonald, G., Puri, A., and Shilling, D. 2008. Interactive effect of photoperiod and fluridone on growth, reproduction, and biochemistry of dioecious hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata). Weed Sci. 56:189195.
Maerz, J., Blossey, B., and Nuzzo, V. 2005. Green frogs show reduced foraging success in habitats invaded by Japanese knotweed. Biodivers. Conserv. 14:29012911.
Mandak, B., Pysek, P., and Bimova, K. 2004. History of the invasion and distribution of Reynoutria taxa in the Czech Republic: a hybrid spreads faster than its parents. Preslia: Praha. 76:1564.
Mandak, B., Pysek, P., Lysak, M., Suda, J., Krahulkova, A., and Bimova, K. 2003. Variation in DNA-ploidy levels of Reynoutria taxa in the Czech Republic. Ann. Bot. 92:265272.
Marigo, G. and Pautou, G. 1998. Phenology, growth and ecophysiological characteristics of Fallopia sachalinensis . J. Veg. Sci. 9:379386.
McCowen, M., Young, C., West, S., Parka, S., and Arnold, W. 1979. Fluridone, a new herbicide for aquatic plant management. J. Aquat. Plant Manag. 17:2730.
McHugh, J. 2006. A Review of Literature and Field Practices Focused on the Management and Control of Invasive Knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum, P. sachalinense, P. polystachium and Hybrids). http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/moredocs/polspp02.pdf. Accessed: November 9, 2007.
Miller, D., Griffin, J., and Richard, E. 1998. Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) control and rainfastness with glyphosate and adjuvants. Weed Technol. 12:617622.
Miller, T. 2005. Evaluation of Knotweed Control Projects in Southwestern Washington. http://agr.wa.gov/PlantsInsects/Weeds/Knotweed/docs/Knotweed_Evaluation_SW_WA.pdf. Accessed: March 1, 2007.
Pallett, K., Little, J., Sheeekey, M., and Veerasekaran, P. 1998. The mode of action of isoxaflutole I. Physiological effects, metabolism, and selectivity. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 62:113124.
Popova, L. 1996. Effect of fluridone on plant development, leaf anatomy and plastid ultrastructure of barley plants. Bulgarian J. Plant Physiol. 22:312.
Price, E., Gamble, R., Williams, G., and Marshall, C. 2002. Seasonal patterns of partitioning and remobilisation of 14C in the invasive rhizomatous perennial Japanese knotweed. Evol. Ecol. 15:347362.
Remaley, T. 1997. Tennessee Exotic Plant Management Manual. Gatlinburg, TN. Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 1.
Roadside Vegetation Management Research 2001. Response of Japanese Knotweed to Spring-Applied Herbicide Treatments. Annual Report of Roadside Vegetation Management Research at the Pennsylvanian State University http://rvm.cas.psu.edu/2000/AR2000.html, Accessed: March 1, 2007.
Roblin, E. 1988. Chemical control of Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica) on river banks in South Wales. Asp. Appl. Biol. 16:201206.
Rylski, I., Rappaport, L., and Pratt, H. 1974. Dual effects of ethephon on potato dormancy and sprout growth. Plant Physiol. 53:658662.
Scorza, R., Welker, W., and Dunn, L. 1984. The effect of glyphosate, auxin and cytokinin combinations on in vitro development of cranberry node explants. HortScience. 19:6668.
Seiger, L. and Merchant, H. 1997. Mechanical control of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene): effects of cutting regime on rhizomatous reserves. Nat. Areas J. 17:341345.
Shaner, D., Anderson, P., and Stidham, M. 1984. Imidazolinones. Potent inhibitors of acetohydroxyacid synthase. Plant Physiol. 76:545546.
Shaw, R., Bryner, S., and Tanner, R. 2009. The life history and host range of the Japanese knotweed psyllid, Aphalara itadori Shinji: potentially the first classical biological weed control agent for the European Union. Biol. Cont. 49:105113.
Shieh, W., Geiger, D., and Buczynski, S. 1993. Inhibition of imported glyphosate in quachgrass (Elytrigia repens) rhizomes in relation to assimilate accumulation. Weed Sci. 41:711.
Simko, I. 1994. Sucrose application causes hormonal changes associated with potato tuber induction. J. Plant Growth Regul. 13:7377.
Smith, H. 1986. The perception of light quality. Pages 187217. In Kendrick, R. and Kronenberg, G. Photomorphogenesis in plants. Dordrecht, Germany Martinus Nijhoff.
Smith, J., Warda, J., Child, L., and Owen, M. 2007. A simulation model of rhizome networks for Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed) in the United Kingdom. Ecol. Model. 200:421432.
Soll, J. 2004. Controlling Knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum, P. sachalinensis, P. polystachyum and Hybrids) in the Pacific Northwest. The Global Invasive Species Initiative. http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/moredocs/polspp01.pdf. Accessed: March 1, 2007.
Suzuki, J. 1994. Growth dynamics of shoot height and foliage structure of a rhizomatous perennial herb, Polygonum cuspidatum . Ann. Bot. 73:629638.
Tsubone, M., Kubota, F., Saitou, K., and Kadowaki, M. 2000. Enhancement of tuberous root production and adenosine 5′-diphosphate pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) by exogenous injection of sucrose solution. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 184:181186.
[USDA NRCS] United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service 2006. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. http://plants.usda.gov Accessed: November 9, 2007.
Vrchotova, N. and Sera, B. 2008. Allelopathic properties of knotweed rhizome extracts. Plant Soil Environ. 54:301303.
Weinberg, T., Lalazar, A., and Rubin, B. 2003. Effect of bleaching herbicides on files dodder (Cuscuta campestris). Weed Sci. 51:663670.
Weston, L., Barney, J., and DiTommaso, A. 2005. A review of the biology and ecology of three invasive perennials in New York State: Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum). Plant Soil. 277:5369.
[WSDA] Washington State Department of Agriculture 2004, 2005, 2006. Washington State Integrated Knotweed Management Plan. http://agr.wa.gov/PlantsInsects/Weeds/Knotweed/Knotweed.htm, Accessed: September 3, 2009.
Xu, X., van Lammeren, A., Vermeer, E., and Vreugdenhil, D. 1998. The role of gibberellins, abscisic acid, and sucrose in the regulation of potato tuber formation in vitro. Plant Physiol. 117:575584.
Young, B. and Hart, S. 1998. Optimizing foliar activity of isoxaflutole on giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) with various adjuvants. Weed Sci. 46:397402.
Zhou, Z., Miwa, M., Nara, K., et al. 2003. Patch establishment and development of a clonal plant, Polygonum cuspidatum, on Mount Fuji. Mol. Ecol. 12:13611373.
Zika, P. and Jacobson, A. 2003. An overlooked hybrid Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum × sachalinense; Polygonaceae) in North America. Rhodora. 105:143152.

Keywords

Review: Physiological Approaches to the Improvement of Chemical Control of Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica)

  • Uliana B. Bashtanova (a1), K. Paul Beckett (a2) and Timothy J. Flowers (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed