Skip to main content Accessibility help

RAPD analysis of genetic variation among propanil-resistant and -susceptible Echinochloa crus-galli populations in Arkansas

  • Jeff Rutledge (a1), Ronald E. Talbert and Clay H. Sneller (a1)


The extensive use of propanil for weed control in Oryza sativa over the past 30 yr has led to the development of propanil-resistant Echinochloa crus-galli. This problem was first identified in one Arkansas county in 1990. Since that time, 171 resistant populations have been identified in 20 counties. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to assess genetic variation among populations of propanil-resistant and -susceptible E. crus-galli in Arkansas and to elucidate the origin of resistance and its dispersal. Sixteen E. crus-galli populations from seven Arkansas counties and one population from Mississippi were analyzed using 13 primers, which amplified a total of 159 repeatable fragments. Genetic distance was calculated among the populations, and the populations were clustered. The analysis revealed two distinct clusters with an average between-cluster genetic distance of 0.436 and average within-cluster distances of 0.012 and 0.029. These clusters may represent different Echinochloa species. Each cluster contained at least one resistant population and populations from different regions of the state. In addition, several resistant populations from different regions of the state were genetically nearly identical. Thus, it is likely that resistant biotypes have spread in Arkansas by seed dispersal and by independent mutation events. This suggests that there are multiple origins of the resistance, and simple control of weed seed dispersal will not stop the spread of resistance.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701;


Hide All
Baltazar, A. M. and Smith, R. J. 1994. Propanil-resistant barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) control in rice (Oryza sativa) . Weed Technol. 8:576581.
Barrett, S.C.H. 1988. Genetics and evolution of agricultural weeds. Pages 5775 In Altieri, M. A. and Liebman, M., eds. Weed Management in Agroecosystems: Ecological Approaches. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Carey, V. F. III, Hoagland, R. E., and Talbert, R. E. 1995. Verification and distribution of propanil-resistant barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in Arkansas. Weed Technol. 9:366372.
Hilu, K. W. 1994. Evidence from RAPD markers in the evolution of Echinochloa millets (Poaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 189:247257.
Holm, L. G., Pluncknett, D. L., Pancho, J. V., and Herberger, J. P. 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, pp. 3240.
Katzir, N., Portnoy, V., Tzuri, G., Castejon-Munoz, M., and Joel, D. M. 1996. Use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in the study of the parasitic weed Orobanche . Theor. Appl. Genet. 93:367372.
Keim, P., Olson, T. C., and Shoemaker, R. C. 1988. A rapid protocol for isolating soybean DNA. Soybean Genet. Newsl. 15:150152.
Lopez-Martinez, N., De Prado, R., Finch, R. P., and Marshall, G. 1995. A molecular assessment of genetic diversity in Echinochloa spp. Pages 445450 In Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conf.— Weeds—1995. Volume 1. Farnham, Great Britain: British Crop Protection Council.
Lopez-Martinez, N., Pujadas Salva, A., Finch, R. P., and DePrado, R. 1999. Molecular markers indicate intraspecific variation in the control of Echinochloa spp. with quinclorac. Weed Sci. 47:310315.
Moodie, M., Finch, R. P., and Marshall, G. 1997. Analysis of genetic variation in wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) using molecular markers. Weed Sci. 45:102107.
Neuffer, B. 1996. RAPD analysis in colonial and ancestral populations of Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Med. (Brassicaceae). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 24:393403.
Nissen, S. J., Masters, R. A., Lee, D. J., and Rowe, M. L. 1995. DNA-based marker systems to determine genetic diversity of weedy species and their application to biocontrol. Weed Sci. 43:504513.
Paran, I., Gidoni, D., and Jacobsohn, R. 1997. Variation between and within broomrape (Orobanche) species revealed by RAPD markers. Heredity 78:6874.
Rowe, M. L., Lee, D. J., Nissen, S. J., Bowditch, B. M., and Masters, R. A. 1997. Genetic variation in North American leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) determined by DNA markers. Weed Sci. 45:446454.
Smith, R. J. Jr. 1961. 3,4-Dichloropropionanilide for control of barnyardgrass in rice. Weeds 9:318322.
Smith, R. J. Jr. 1965. Propanil and mixtures with propanil for weed control in rice. Weeds 13:236238.
Smith, R. J. Jr. 1974. Competition of barnyardgrass with rice cultivars. Weed Sci. 22:423426.
Smith, R. J. Jr. 1988. Weed thresholds in southern U.S. rice, Oryza sativa . Weed Technol. 2:232241.
Smith, R. J. Jr. and Khodayari, K. 1985. Herbicide treatments for control of weeds in dry-seeded rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Sci. 33:686692.
Sneller, C. H., Miles, J. W., and Hoyt, J. M. 1997. Agronomic performance of soybean plant introductions and their genetic similarity to elite lines. Crop Sci. 37:15951600.
Sokal, R. and Rohlf, J. F. 1995. Biometry. 3rd ed. New York: W. H. Freeman, pp. New York7.
Sweeney, P. M. and Danneberger, T. K. 1995. RAPD characterization of Poa annua L. populations in golf course greens and fairways. Crop Sci. 35:16761680.
Talbert, R. E., Carey, V. F. III, Kitt, M. J., Helms, R. S., and Black, H. L. 1995. Control, biology and ecology of propanil-resistant barnyardgrass. Pages 2331 In Wells, B. R., ed. Arkansas Rice Experiment Studies 1994. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Ser. 446.
Talbert, R. E., Norsworthy, J. K., Schmidt, L. A., Baines, C. B., Daou, H., and Baldwin, F. L. 1997. Characterization and control of propanil-resistant barnyardgrass. Pages 4452 In Norman, R. J. and Johnston, T. H., eds. Arkansas Rice Experiment Studies 1996. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Ser. 456.
Talbert, R. E., Schmidt, L. A., Norsworthy, J. K., Rutledge, J. S., and Fox, W. L. 1998. Confirmation of propanil-resistant barnyardgrass and strategies for control. Pages 8090 In Norman, R. J. and Johnston, T. H., eds. Arkansas Rice Experiment Studies 1997. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Ser. 460.
Vellekoop, P., Buntjer, J. B., Maas, J. W., and van Brederode, J. 1996. Can the spread of agriculture in Europe be followed by tracing the spread of the weed Silene latifolia . A RAPD study. Theor. Appl. Genet. 92:10851090.
Welsh, J. and McClelland, M. 1990. Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucleic Acids Res. 18:72137218.
Williams, J.G.K., Kubelik, A. R., Livak, K. J., Rafalski, J. A., and Tingey, S. V. 1990. DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res. 18:65316535.


RAPD analysis of genetic variation among propanil-resistant and -susceptible Echinochloa crus-galli populations in Arkansas

  • Jeff Rutledge (a1), Ronald E. Talbert and Clay H. Sneller (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.