Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Method Affects Weed Growth and Competition with Wheat

  • Robert E. Blackshaw (a1) and Louis J. Molnar (a1)

Abstract

Strategic fertilizer management is an important component of integrated weed management systems. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of various application methods of phosphorus (P) fertilizer on weed growth and wheat yield. Weed species were chosen to represent species that varied in their growth responsiveness to P: redroot pigweed (medium), wild mustard (medium), wild oat (medium), green foxtail (high), redstem filaree (high), and round-leaved mallow (high). P fertilizer application methods were seed placed at a 5-cm depth, midrow banded at a 10-cm depth, surface broadcast immediately before seeding, and surface broadcast immediately after seeding of wheat. An unfertilized control was included. P treatments were applied to the same plot in four consecutive years to determine annual and cumulative effects over years. Shoot P concentration and biomass of weeds were often lower with seed-placed or subsurface-banded P fertilizer compared with either surface-broadcast application method. This result occurred more frequently with the highly P-responsive weeds and was more evident in the latter study years. P application method had little effect on weed-free wheat yield but often had a large effect on weed-infested wheat yield. Seed-placed or midrow-banded P compared with surface-broadcast P fertilizer often resulted in higher yields when wheat was in the presence of competitive weeds. Seedbank determinations at the conclusion of the study indicated that the seed density of five of six weed species was reduced with seed-placed or subsurface-banded P compared with surface-broadcast P. Information gained in this study will aid development of more effective weed management systems in wheat.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: blackshawre@agr.gc.ca

References

Hide All
Andreasen, C., Streibig, J. C., and Hass, H. 1991. Soil properties affecting the distribution of 37 weed species in Danish fields. Weed Res. 31:181187.
Angonin, C., Caussanel, J. P., and Meynard, J. M. 1996. Competition between winter wheat and Veronica hederifolia: influence of weed density and the amount and timing of nitrogen application. Weed Res. 36:175187.
Anonymous 1977. Technicon Industrial Method No. 334-74W/B+. Tarrytown, NY Technicon Industrial Systems.
Banks, P. A., Santelmann, P. W., and Tucker, B. B. 1976. Influence of long-term soil fertility treatments on weed species in winter wheat. Agron. J. 68:825827.
Barber, S. A. 1980. Soil–plant interactions in plant nutrition. Pages 591615. In Khasawneh, F. E., Sample, E. C., and Kamprath, E. J. The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture. Madison, WI ASA.
Belnap, J., Sherrod, S. K., and Miller, M. E. 2003. Effects of soil amendments on germination and emergence of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) and Hilaria jamesii. Weed Sci. 51:371378.
Blackshaw, R. E., Anderson, R. L., and Lemerle, D. 2007. Cultural weed management. Pages 3547. In Upadhyaya, M. K. and Blackshaw, R. E. Non-Chemical Weed Management: Principles, Concepts and Technology. Oxfordfordshire, UK CABI.
Blackshaw, R. E., Brandt, R. N., Janzen, H. H., and Entz, T. 2004a. Weed species response to phosphorus fertilization. Weed Sci. 52:406412.
Blackshaw, R. E., Molnar, L. J., and Janzen, H. H. 2004b. Nitrogen fertilizer timing and application method affect weed growth and competition with spring wheat. Weed Sci. 52:614622.
Blue, E. N., Mason, S. C., and Sander, D. H. 1990. Influence of planting date, seeding rate, and phosphorus rate on wheat yield. Agron. J. 82:762768.
Cardina, J. and Sparrow, D. H. 1996. A comparison of methods to predict weed seedling populations from the soil seedbank. Weed Sci. 44:4651.
DiTomaso, J. M. 1995. Approaches for improving crop competitiveness through the manipulation of fertilization strategies. Weed Sci. 43:491497.
Gebhardt, M. R., Daniel, T. C., Schweizer, E. E., and Allmaras, R. R. 1985. Conservation tillage. Science. 230:625630.
Gill, G. S. and Blacklow, W. M. 1984. Effect of great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth.) on the growth of wheat and great brome and their uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 35:18.
Godel, G. L. 1938. Cereal growing on weedy land in northeastern Saskatchewan: effect of heavy seeding with the use of fertilizer on the development of weeds and crops. Sci. Agric. 19:2132.
Grant, C. A., Flaten, D. N., Tomasiewicz, D. J., and Sheppard, S. C. 2001. The importance of early season phosphorus nutrition. Can. J. Plant Sci. 81:211224.
Grant, C. A., Peterson, G. A., and Campbell, C. A. 2002. Nutrient considerations for diversified cropping systems in the northern Great Plains. Agron. J. 94:186198.
Halvorson, A. D. and Black, A. L. 1985. Long-term dryland crop responses to residual phosphorus fertilizer. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 49:928933.
Hoffman, M. L., Owen, M. D. K., and Buhler, D. D. 1998. Effects of crop and weed management on density and vertical distribution of weed seeds in soil. Agron. J. 90:793799.
Hoveland, C. S., Buchanan, G. A., and Harris, M. C. 1976. Response of weeds to soil phosphorus and potassium. Weed Sci. 24:194201.
Konesky, D. W., Siddiqi, M. Y., and Glass, A. D. M. 1989. Wild oat and barley interactions: varietal differences in competitiveness in relation to phosphorus supply. Can. J. Bot. 67:33663371.
Middleton, A. B., Bremer, E., and McKenzie, R. H. 2004. Winter wheat response to nitrogen fertilizer form and placement in southern Alberta. Can. J. Soil Sci. 84:125131.
Nyborg, M., Malhi, S. S., Mumey, G., Penney, D. C., and Laverty, D. H. 1999. Economics of phosphorus fertilization of barley as influenced by concentration of extractable phosphorus in the soil. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 30:17891795.
O'Donovan, J. T., Clayton, G. W., Grant, C. A., Harker, K. N., Turkington, T. K., and Lupwayi, N. Z. 2008. Effect of nitrogen rate and placement and seeding rate on barley productivity and wild oat fecundity in a zero tillage system. Crop Sci. 48:15691574.
O'Halloran, I. P. 1993. Total and organic phosphorus. Pages 213229. In Carter, M. R. Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Boca Raton, FL Lewis.
Ozanne, P. G. 1980. Phosphate nutrition of plants—a general treatise. Pages 559589. In Khasawneh, F. E., Sample, E. C., and Kamprath, E. J. The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture. Madison, WI ASA.
Sander, D. H. and Eghball, B. 1999. Planting date and phosphorus fertilizer placement effects on winter wheat. Agron. J. 91:707712.
Santos, B. M., Dusky, J. A., Stall, W. M., and Gilreath, J. P. 2004. Influence of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) densities and phosphorus fertilization on lettuce. Crop Prot. 23:173176.
Santos, B. M., Dusky, J. A., Stall, W. M., Shilling, D. G., and Bewick, T. A. 1998. Phosphorus effects on competitive interactions of smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) with lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Weed Sci. 46:307312.
SAS Institute Inc 2005. SAS OnlineDoc 9.1.3. http://support.sas.com/documentation/onlinedoc/91pdf/index.html. Accessed: April 16, 2008.
Shepppard, S. C. and Racz, G. 1985. Shoot and root response of wheat to band and broadcast phosphorus at varying soil temperature. Can. J. Soil Sci. 65:7988.
Shrefler, J. W., Dusky, J. A., Shilling, D. G., Brecke, B. J., and Sanchez, C. A. 1994. Effects of phosphorus fertility on competition between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus). Weed Sci. 42:556560.
Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. H. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 2nd ed. New York McGraw-Hill.
Tanveer, A., Ahmad, R., Ayub, M., and Ali, A. 1999. Phosphorus removal by wheat (Triticum aestivum) and lamb's quarters (Chenopodium album) as affected by method of fertilizer application and competition period. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 69:406409.
Van Delden, A., Lotz, L. A., Bastiaans, L., Franke, A. C., Smid, H. G., Groeneveld, R. M. W., and Kropff, M. J. 2002. The influence of nitrogen supply on the ability of wheat and potato to suppress Stellaria media growth and reproduction. Weed Res. 42:429445.
Vengris, J., Drake, M., Colby, W. G., and Drake, M. 1955. Plant nutrient competition between weeds and crops. Agron. J. 47:213216.
Verma, R., Agarwal, H. R., and Nepalia, V. 1999. Effect of weed control and phosphorus on crop-weed competition in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Indian J. Weed Sci. 31:265266.
Walter, A. M., Christensen, S., and Simmelsgaard, S. E. 2002. Spatial correlation between weed species densities and soil properties. Weed Res. 42:2638.
Yenish, J. P., Fry, T. A., Durgan, B. R., and Wyse, D. L. 1992. Effects of tillage on vertical distribution and viability of weed seed in soil. Weed Sci. 40:429433.

Keywords

Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Method Affects Weed Growth and Competition with Wheat

  • Robert E. Blackshaw (a1) and Louis J. Molnar (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed