Replacement series studies were conducted under controlled conditions to determine the effect of phosphorus (P) rates and population densities on the competitiveness of smooth pigweed and common purslane with lettuce. Densities were 2, 4, and 8 plants per 113 cm2, whereas P rates were 0, 0.4, and 0.8 g PL−1 soil. A P-deficient Histosol (0.3 mg water-extractable P L−1 soil) was used. High P fertility enhanced the competitive ability of lettuce in smooth pigweed-lettuce mixtures. Smooth pigweed was not responsive to P rates. However, luxurious P consumption by smooth pigweed occurred, reducing the amount of the nutrient available for lettuce absorption. In common purslane-lettuce mixtures, the weed was responsive to P rates, increasing its competitive ability, whereas no increase in lettuce competitive ability was observed. Both weed species were more competitive than lettuce. Competition for P appears to be the main mechanism of common purslane interference on lettuce grown in low-P organic soils. Alternative fertilization strategies (i.e., banded applications) may reduce the effect of smooth pigweed on lettuce.