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Multiple resistance to PPO and ALS inhibitors in redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)

  • Hao Wang (a1), Hengzhi Wang (a1), Ning Zhao (a1), Baolin Zhu (a1), Penglei Sun (a1), Weitang Liu (a2) and Jinxin Wang (a3)...

Abstract

A redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) population (HN-02) collected from Nenjiang County, Heilongjiang Province, exhibited multiple resistance to fomesafen and nicosulfuron. The purposes of this study were to characterize the herbicide resistance status of an HN-02 population for both acetolactate synthase (ALS) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors and the response to other herbicides and to investigate the target site-based mechanism governing fomesafen and nicosulfuron resistance. Three mutations, Ala-205-Val and Trp-574-Leu mutations in the ALS gene and an Arg-128-Gly mutation in the PPX2 gene, were identified in individual resistant plants. An HN-02F1-1 subpopulation homozygous for the Ala-205-Val and Arg-128-Gly mutations was generated, and whole-plant experiments confirmed multiple resistance to PPO inhibitors (fomesafen, fluoroglycofen-ethyl, and acifluorfen) and ALS inhibitors (imidazolinones [IMI], sulfonylureas [SU], and triazolopyrimidines [TP]) in the HN-02F1-1 plants, which presented resistance index values ranging from 8.3 to 110; however, these plants were sensitive to flumioxazin, fluroxypyr-meptyl, and 2,4-D butylate. In vitro ALS enzyme activity assays revealed that, compared with ALS from susceptible plants, ALS from the HN-02F1-1 plants was 15-, 28- and 320-fold resistant to flumetsulam, nicosulfuron, and imazethapyr, respectively. This study confirms the first case of multiple resistance to PPO and ALS inhibitors in A. retroflexus and determines that the target-site resistance mechanism was produced by Ala-205-Val and Arg-128-Gly mutations in the ALS gene and PPX2 gene, respectively. In particular, the Ala-205-Val mutation was found to endow resistance to three classes of ALS inhibitors: TP, SU, and IMI.

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Corresponding author

Authors for correspondence: Jinxin Wang, College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an 271018, Shandong, China. (Email: wangjx@sdau.edu.cn)
Weitang Liu, College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an 271018, Shandong, China. (Email: liuwt@sdau.edu.cn)

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Associate Editor: Patrick J. Tranel, University of Illinois

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References

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Keywords

Multiple resistance to PPO and ALS inhibitors in redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)

  • Hao Wang (a1), Hengzhi Wang (a1), Ning Zhao (a1), Baolin Zhu (a1), Penglei Sun (a1), Weitang Liu (a2) and Jinxin Wang (a3)...

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