Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Morphological and Phenological Variation in Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in California

  • Robert F. Norris (a1)

Abstract

Individual barnyardgrass plants were grown in the absence of competition in a common garden environment. Cohorts were initiated in mid-March, late April, early June, mid-July, mid-August, and mid-September. Plants within a cohort varied from prostrate to upright. Early and late cohorts required slightly longer to achieve flowering and seed shatter than those initiated in late spring and early summer. The onset and development of senescence varied by as much as 5 wk between individuals within a cohort, and senescence progressed more rapidly for plants in later cohorts. Longest tiller length per plant averaged 150 cm and did not differ by cohort, but within cohort variation was approximately 33%. The number of tillers per plant declined with increasing delay in cohort initiation; within cohort variation exceeded 40%. Leaf numbers decreased from more than 10,000 per plant to less than 400 per plant with increasing delay in cohort initiation date. Individuals within a cohort had more than two-fold variation in leaf numbers. The number of inflorescences decreased from more than 4500 per plant to less than 100 with increasing delay in cohort initiation. Mean inflorescence length and frequency of different inflorescence lengths per plant varied between plants within a cohort. Vegetative biomass exceeded 3000 g for many plants in the early cohorts, and decreased to less than 25 g per plant for some individuals in the September cohort. More than two-fold variation in biomass occurred between plants within a cohort. Plasticity in morphology and phenology may contribute to the success of barnyardgrass as a weed.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Baker, H. G. 1965. Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds. Pages 147172 in Baker, H. G. and Stebbins, G. L. (eds), The Genetics of Colonizing Species, Academic Press Inc., New York.
2. Baker, H. G. 1974. The evolution of weeds. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5: 124.
3. Barrett, S. C. H. and Wilson, B. F. 1981. Colonizing ability in the Echinochloa crus-galli complex (barnyardgrass). 1. Variation in life history. Can. J. Bot. 59: 18441860.
4. Crafts-Brandner, S., Below, F. E., Harper, J. E., and Hageman, R. H. 1984. Differential senescence of maize hybrids following ear removal. I. Whole plant. Plant Physiol. 74: 360367.
5. Duncan, R. R., Bockholt, A. J., and Miller, F. R. 1981. Descriptive comparison of senescent and nonsenescent Sorghum genotypes. Agron. J. 73: 849853.
6. Feltner, K. C., Hurst, H. R., and Anderson, L. E. 1969. Yellow foxtail competition in grain sorghum. Weed Sci. 17: 211213.
7. Gould, F. W., Alli, M. A., and Fairbrothers, B. E. 1972. A revision of Echinochloa in the United Stales. Am. Midl. Nat. 87: 3659.
8. Grime, J. P. 1979. Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 282 pp.
9. Hamrick, J. L. 1979. Genetic variation and longevity. Pages 84113 in Solbrig, O. T., Jain, S., Johnson, G. B., and Raven, P. H. (eds), Topics in Plant Population Biology, Colombia Univ. Press, New York.
10. Harper, J. L. 1977. Population Biology of Plants, Academic Press, London, 892 pp.
11. Hitchcock, A. S. and Chase, A. 1950. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. Misc. Pub. 200, USDA, US Gov. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1051 pp.
12. Holm, L. G., Plucknett, D. L., Pancho, J. V., and Herberger, J. P. 1977. Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. Pages 3240 in Holm, L. G., Plucknett, D. L., Pancho, J. V., and Herberger, J. P., The World's Worst Weeds, Univ. Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, HA.
13. Keeley, P. E. and Thullen, R. J. 1989. Influence of planting date on growth of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Weed Sci. 37: 557561.
14. Kelly, M. O. and Davies, P. J. 1988. The control of whole plant senescence. CRC Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 7: 139173.
15. Mahmoud, A, Grime, J. P., and Furness, S. B. 1975. Polymorphism in Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Beauv. ex J. & C. Presl. New Phytol. 75: 269276.
16. Martinková, Z. and Honek, A. 1992. Effect of plant size on the number of caryopses in barnyard grass, Echinochloa crus-galli (Poaceae). Preslia, Praha, 64: 171176.
17. Maun, M. A. and Barrett, S. C. H. 1986. The biology of Canadian weeds. 77. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. Can. J. Plant Sci. 66: 739759.
18. Mondal, W. A. and Choudhuri, M. A. 1984. Senescence behaviour of the whole plant in four rice varieties. Experientia 40: 460461.
19. Nieto, J. H. and Staniforth, D. H. 1961. Corn-foxtail competition under various production conditions. Agron. J. 53: 15.
20. Norris, R. F. 1991. Relationship between inflorescence size and seed production in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Weed Sci. 40: 7478.
21. Norris, R. F. 1992. Predicting seed rain in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Inter. Symp. Biol. Weeds, 9: 377386.
22. Norris, R. F. and Ayres, D. 1991. Cutting interval and time of irrigation in alfalfa: Yellow foxtail invasion and economic analysis. Agron. J. 83: 552558.
23. Rahn, E. M., Sweet, R. D., Vengris, J., and Dunn, S. 1968. Life history studies as related to weed control in the Northeast. 5—Barnyardgrass. Northeast Reg. Pub., Bull. 368, Agric. Exp. Stn., Univ. of Delaware, Newark, 46 pp.
24. Roché, B. F. and Muzik, T. J. 1964. Ecological and physiological study of Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. and the response of its biotypes to sodium 2,2-dichloropionate. Agron. J. 56: 155160.
25. Rodriguez, R., Sánchez Tamés, R., and Durzan, D. J. (eds). 1990. Plant Aging: Basic and Applied Approaches. NATO ASI Ser., Ser. A: Life Sci. Vol. 186, Plenum Press, New York, 450 pp.
26. Schoner, C.A. Jr., Norris, R. F., and Chilcote, W. 1978. Yellow foxtail (Setaria lutescens) biotype studies: Growth and morphological characteristics. Weed Sci. 26: 632636.
27. Silvertown, J. W. 1987. Introduction to Plant Population Ecology, Longman Scientific & Technical, and John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 229 pp.
28. Thompson, B. K., Weiner, J., and Warwick, S. I. 1991. Size-dependent reproductive output in agricultural weeds. Can. J. Bot. 69: 442446.
29. Vengris, J., Kacperska-Palacz, A. E., and Livingston, R. B. 1966. Growth and development of barnyardgrass in Massachusetts. Weeds 14: 299301.
30. Watkinson, A. 1992. Plant senescence. Trends Ecol. Evol. 7, 4l7–420.
31. Webster, R. 1993. Echinochloa. Pages 12521253 in Hickman, J. C., (ed), The Jepson Manual Higher Plants of California. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed