Skip to main content Accessibility help

Modeling the integrated management of giant foxtail in corn–soybean

  • Alvin J. Bussan and Chris M. Boerboom (a1)


The objectives of this study were to use a computer simulation model to predict the influence of herbicides and mechanical treatments on giant foxtail population dynamics, annualized net return (ANR), and the giant foxtail economic optimum threshold (EOT) in a corn–soybean rotation over 20 yr. Mechanical treatments were interrow cultivation in corn and rotary hoe in soybean. Herbicides at full (1 ×) and half (½ ×) rates applied alone reduced giant foxtail seedbank 95% within 4 and 8 yr, respectively. Predicted seedbank dynamics had more variability when managed with herbicides at ½ × than at 1 × rates applied alone. Mechanical treatments integrated with herbicide at ½ × rates resulted in giant foxtail seedbank and variability similar to herbicides at 1 × rates applied alone. ANR was maximized when herbicides were applied between ⅜ × and 9/16 × rates applied alone. As initial giant foxtail density increased from 100 to 10,000 seeds m−2, the herbicide rate that maximized ANR increased. Economic optimum thresholds (EOTs) did not vary when herbicides were applied at different rates, but integrating mechanical treatment with herbicides increased the EOT from 0.1 to 0.7 seedlings m−2. Sensitivity analysis determined that giant foxtail seedbank demographics, seedling survival, and seed production per plant had the most influence on model predictions. Model sensitivity varied little between 1 × and ½ × rates. Integrating herbicides and mechanical treatment decreased the sensitivity of the model to perturbations in parameter estimates. Herbicides at reduced rates were more profitable over the long term than 1 × rates, but risk of herbicide failure increased as rate decreased. Integration of herbicides applied at reduced rates with mechanical treatments increased ANR and minimized the risk of herbicide failure compared to herbicides applied at 1 × rates alone.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.


Hide All
Anonymous. 1992. Wisconsin Agricultural Statistics. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Department of Agriculture Trade Consumer Protection. 98 p.
Anonymous. 1994. Wisconsin Agricultural Statistics. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Department of Agriculture Trade Consumer Protection. 98 p.
Anonymous. 1996. Wisconsin Agricultural Statistics. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Department of Agriculture Trade Consumer Protection. 74 p.
Bauer, T. A. and Mortensen, D. A. 1992. A comparison of economic and economic optimum thresholds for two annual weeds in G. max . Weed Technol. 6:228235.
Boerboom, C. M., Doll, J. D., Flashinski, R. A., Grau, C. R., and Wedberg, J. L. 1997. Field Crops Pest Management in Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Bull. A3646. pp. 182185.
Buhler, D. D., Doll, J. D., Proost, R. T., and Visocky, M. R. 1994. Interrow cultivation to reduce herbicide use in Z. mays following alfalfa without tillage. Agron. J. 86:6672.
Buhler, D. D., Gunsolus, J. L., and Ralston, D. F. 1992. Integrated weed management techniques to reduce herbicide inputs in G. max . Agron. J. 84:973978.
Burnside, O. C., Wilson, R. G., Weisberg, S., and Hubbard, K. G. 1996. Seed longevity of 41 weed species buried 17 years in eastern and western Nebraska. Weed Sci. 44:7486.
Bussan, A. J. 1997. Predicted Population Dynamics of Pigweed, S. faberi, and Velvetleaf as Influenced by Herbicides at Reduced Rates in Z. mays and G. max . Ph.D. dissertation. University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI. 287 p.
Bussan, A. J., Boerboom, C. M., and Stoltenberg, D. E. 2000. Response of S. faberi (Setaria faberi) demographic processes to herbicide rates. Weed Sci. 48:445453.
Bussan, A. J., Boerboom, C. M., and Stoltenberg, D. E. 2001. Response of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) demographic processes to herbicide rates. Weed Sci. 49:2230.
Carey, J. B. and Kells, J. J. 1995. Timing of total postemergence herbicide applications to maximize weed control and corn (Zea mays) yield. Weed Technol. 9:356361.
Cousens, R. 1985. A simple model relating yield loss to weed density. Ann. Appl. Biol. 107:239252.
Cousens, R., Doyle, C. J., Wilson, B. J., and Cussans, G. W. 1986. Modelling the economics of controlling Avena fatua in winter wheat. Pestic. Sci. 17:112.
DeFelice, M. S., Brown, W. B., Aldrich, R. J., Sims, B. D., Judy, D. T., and Guethle, D. R. 1989. Weed control in G. max (Glycine max) with reduced rates of postemergence herbicides. Weed. Sci. 37:365374.
Devlin, D. L., Long, J. H., and Maddux, L. D. 1991. Using reduced rates of postemergence herbicides in G. max (Glycine max). Weed Technol. 5:834840.
Egley, G. H. and Chandler, J. M. 1978. Germination and viability of weed seeds after 2.5 years in a 50-year buried seed study. Weed Sci. 31:264270.
Forcella, F., Wilson, R. G., Renner, K. A., Dekker, J., Harvey, R. G., Alm, D. A., Buhler, D. D., and Cardina, J. 1992. Weed seedbanks of the U.S. Z. mays belt: magnitude, variation, emergence, and application. Weed Sci. 40:636644.
Fuller, E., Lazarus, W., and Peterson, A. 1995. Minnesota Farm Machinery Economic Cost Estimates for 1995. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota. Cooperative Extension Bull.
Gonzalez-Andujar, J. L. and Fernandez-Quintanilla, C. 1991. Modeling the population dynamics of Avena sterilis under dry-land cereal cropping systems. J. Appl. Ecol. 28:1627.
Griffin, J. L., Reynolds, D. B., Vidrine, P. R., and Saxton, A. M. 1992. Common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) control with reduced rates of soil and foliar-applied imazaquin. Weed Technol. 6:847851.
Hanson, J. E., Stoltenberg, D. E., Lowery, B., and Binning, L. K. 1997. Influence of application rate on atrazine fate in a silt loam soil. J. Environ. Qual. 26:829835.
King, R. P., Lybecker, D. W., Schweizer, E. E., and Zimdahl, R. L. 1986. Bioeconomic modeling to simulate weed control strategies for continuous corn (Zea mays). Weed Sci. 34:972979.
Knake, E. L. and Slife, F. W. 1962. Competition of Setaria faberi with Z. mays and G. max . Weeds 10:2629.
Krausz, R. F., Kapusta, G., and Matthews, J. L. 1993. The effect of S. faberi (Setaria faberi) plant height on control with six postemergence herbicides. Weed Technol. 7:491494.
Kropff, M. J. and Lotz, L.A.P. 1992. Optimization of weed management systems: the role of ecological models of interplant competition. Weed Technol. 6:462470.
Lindquist, J. L., Maxwell, B. D., Buhler, D. D., and Gunsolus, J. L. 1995. Modeling the population dynamics and economics of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) control in a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) rotation. Weed Sci. 43:269275.
Mulder, T. A. and Doll, J. D. 1993. Integrating reduced herbicide use with mechanical weeding in corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol. 7:382389.
Mulugeta, D. and Stoltenberg, D. E. 1997. Weed and seedbank management with integrated methods as influenced by tillage. Weed Sci. 45:706715.
Prostko, E. P. and Meade, J. A. 1993. Reduced rates of postemergence herbicides in conventional soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol. 7:365369.
Rabaey, T. L. and Harvey, R. G. 1994. Efficacy of corn (Zea mays) herbicides applied at reduced rates impregnated in dry fertilizer. Weed Technol. 8:830835.
Reuss, S. 1997. Viability and distribution of weed seed within a Waukegon silt loam soil. Pages 1652 In Viability and Distribution of Weed Seed Within Soil Aggregates of Three Minnesota Soils. . University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.
[SAS] Statistical Analysis Systems. 1988. SAS/STAT User's Guide. Version 6.03. Cary, NC: Statistical Analysis Systems Institute.
Steckel, L. E., DeFelice, M. S., and Sims, L. D. 1990. Integrating reduced rates of postemergence herbicides and cultivation for broadleaf weed control in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Sci. 38:541545.
Wilson, R. G. 1993. Effect of preplant tillage, post-plant cultivation, and herbicides on weed density in corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol. 7:728734.
Zoschke, A. 1994. Toward reduced herbicide rates and adapted weed management. Weed Technol. 8:376386.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Weed Science
  • ISSN: 0043-1745
  • EISSN: 1550-2759
  • URL: /core/journals/weed-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed