Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Leaf characteristics and surfactants affect primisulfuron droplet spread in three broadleaf weeds

  • Debanjan Sanyal, Prasanta C. Bhowmik (a1) and Krishna N. Reddy (a2)

Abstract

Laboratory studies were conducted to examine the leaf surface, epicuticular wax content, and spray droplet behavior on common lambsquarters, common purslane, and velvetleaf. Adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and leaf wax was extracted and quantified for all three weed species. The spread of 1-μl droplets of distilled water, primisulfuron solution (without surfactant), primisulfuron solution with a nonionic low foam wetter/spreader adjuvant (0.25% v/v), and with an organosilicone wetting agent (0.1% v/v) was determined on the adaxial leaf surfaces of each of the weed species. Glands and trichomes were present on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of velvetleaf. Common purslane had neither glands nor trichomes on either side of the leaf. Common lambsquarters did not have any glands or trichomes, but it had globular bladder hairs on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Stomata were present on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces in all three weed species. Common purslane had a much lower number of stomata per unit area of leaf as compared with velvetleaf or common lambsquarters. Common lambsquarters had the highest epicuticular wax content on the leaf surface (274.5 μg cm−2), followed by common purslane (153.4 μg cm−2) and velvetleaf (7.4 μg cm−2). There were no significant variations in the spread of the 1-μl droplet of distilled water and primisulfuron (without adjuvant) among the species. Spread of primisulfuron droplets with surfactant was highest on the leaf surface of velvetleaf that had the lowest wax content. Droplet spread was greatest with organosilicone surfactant followed by the nonionic surfactant.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003; debanjan@psis.umass.edu

References

Hide All
Baker, E. A. 1982. Chemistry and morphology of plant epicuticular waxes. Pages 139166 in Cutler, D. F., Alvin, K. L., and Price, C. E. eds. The Plant Cuticle. London: Academic Press.
Bauer, T. A. and Mortensen, D. A. 1992. A comparison of economic optimum thresholds for two annual weeds in soybeans:. Weed Technol 6:228235.
Bellinder, R. R., Arsenovic, M., Shah, D. A., and Rauch, B. J. 2003. Effect of weed growth stage and adjuvant on the efficacy of fomesafen and bentazon. Weed Sci 51:10161021.
Benzing, D. H. and Burt, K. M. 1970. Foliar permeability among twenty species of the Bromeliaceae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 97:269279.
Bhowmik, P. C. 1995. Integrated techniques for controlling Elytrigia repens populations. Pages 611618 in Proceedings of the 9th Annual Changes for Weed Science in a Changing Europe. Doorwerth, The Netherlands: European Weed Research Society.
Bhowmik, P. C. 1999. Effects of primisulfuron on quackgrass (Elytrigia repens) populations in corn (Zea mays). Pages 466471 in The Proceedings of the 17th Annual Weeds and Environmental Impact Conference. Bangkok, Thailand: Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society.
Chachalis, D., Reddy, K. N., and Elmore, C. D. 2001a. Characterization of leaf surface, wax composition, and control of redvine and trumpetcreeper with glyphosate. Weed Sci 49:156163.
Chachalis, D., Reddy, K. N., Elmore, C. D., and Steele, M. L. 2001b. Herbicide efficacy, leaf structure, and spray droplet contact angle among Ipomoea species and small flower morningglory. Weed Sci 49:628634.
Colquhoun, J., Stoltenberg, D. E., Binning, L. K., and Boerboom, C. M. 2001. Phenology of common lambsquarters growth parameters. Weed Sci 49:177183.
[CPR] Crop Protection Reference, 18th edition. 2002. New York: C & P. Pp. 17911796.
Ferreira, J. F. S. and Reddy, K. N. 2000. Absorption and translocation of glyphosate in Erythroxylum coca and E. novogranatense . Weed Sci 48:193199.
Green, J. M. 2002. Weed specificity of alcohol ethoxylate surfactants applied with rimsulfuron. Weed Technol 16:7983.
Harr, J., Guggenheim, R., Schulke, G., and Falk, R. H. 1991. The leaf surface of major weeds. Champaign, IL: Sandoz Agro.
Hess, F. D. 1985. Herbicide absorption and translocation and their relationship to plant tolerances and susceptibility. Pages 191214 in Duke, S. O. ed. Weed Physiology. Volume II. Herbicide Physiology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Hess, F. D., Bayer, D. E., and Falk, R. H. 1974. Herbicide dispersal patterns, 1: as a function of leaf surface. Weed Sci 22:394401.
Holloway, P. J. 1970. Surface factors affecting the wetting of leaves. Pestic. Sci 1:156163.
Holm, L. G., Plucknett, D. L., Pancho, J. V., and Herberger, J. P. 1977. Chenopodium album L. Chenopodiaceae, goosefoot family. Pages 8491 in The World's Worst Weeds: Distribution and Ecology. Honolulu, HI: University Press of Hawaii.
Hull, H. M. 1970. Leaves structure as related to absorption of pesticides and other compounds. Pages 1155 in Gunther, F. A. and Gunther, J. D. eds. Residue Review. Volume 31. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Hull, H. M., Davis, D. G., and Stolzenberg, G. E. 1982. Actions of adjuvant on plant surface. Pages 2667 in Adjuvants for Herbicides. Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America.
Johnson, H. E., Hazen, J. L., and Penner, D. 2002. Citric ester surfactants as adjuvants with herbicides. Weed Technol 16:867872.
Juniper, B. E. 1960. Growth, development, and the effect of environment on the ultrastructure of plant surfaces. J. Linn. Soc. Bot 56:413419.
Juniper, B. E. and Bradley, D. E. 1958. The carbon replica technique in the study of the ultrastructure of leaf surfaces. J. Ultrastruct. Res 2:1627.
Kirkwood, R. C., McKay, I., and Livingstone, R. 1982. The use of model systems to study the cuticular penetration of 14C- MCPA and 14C-MCPB. Pages 253266 in Cutler, D. F., Alvin, K. L., and Price, C. E., eds. The Plant Cuticle. Linn. Soc. Symp. Ser. 10. London: Academic Press.
McWhorter, C. G. 1985. The physiological effects of adjuvants on plants. Pages 141158 in Duke, S. O. ed. Weed Physiology: Herbicide Physiology. Volume II. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
McWhorter, C. G. 1993. Epicuticular wax on johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) leaves. Weed Sci 41:475482.
Mitich, L. W. 1997. Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea). Weed Technol 11:394397.
Nandula, V. K., Curran, W. S., Roth, G. W., and Hartwig, N. L. 1995. Effectiveness of adjuvants with nicosulfuron and primisulfuron for wirestem muhly (Muhlenbergia frondosa) control in no till corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol 9:525530.
Ormrod, D. J. and Renney, A. J. 1968. A survey of weed leaf stomata and trichomes. Can. J. Plant Sci 48:197209.
Sattin, M., Zanin, G., and Berti, A. 1992. Case history for weed competition/population ecology: velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) in corn (Zea mays). Weed Technol 6:213219.
Spencer, N. R. 1984. Velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti, history and economic impact in the United States. Econ. Bot 38:407416.
Stock, D. and Holloway, P. J. 1993. Possible mechanisms for surfactant induced foliar uptake of agrochemicals. Pestic. Sci 38:165177.
Strahan, R. E., Griffin, J. L., Jordan, D. L., and Miller, D. K. 2000. Influence of adjuvants on Itchgrass (Rottboellia cochinchinensis) control in corn (Zea mays) with nicosulfuron and primisulfuron. Weed Technol 14:6671.
Wanamarta, G. and Penner, D. 1989. Foliar absorption of herbicides. Rev. Weed Sci 4:215231.
Warwick, S. I. and Black, L. D. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds. 90. Abutilon theophrasti . Can. J. Plant Sci 68:10691085.
Whitehouse, P., Holloway, P. J., and Caseley, J. C. 1982. The epicuticular wax of wild oats in relation to foliar entry of the herbicides diclofopmethyl and difenzoquat. Pages 315330 in Cutler, D. F., Alvin, K. L., and Price, C. E. eds. The Plant Cuticle. Linn. Soc. Symp. Ser. 10. London: Academic Press.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed