Skip to main content Accessibility help

Influence of nitrate and ammonium nutrition on the growth of giant foxtail (Setaria faberi)

  • Maria L. Salas, Michael V. Hickman (a1), Don M. Huber (a1) and Marvin M. Schreiber (a1)


The objective of this study was to evaluate growth and seed production of giant foxtail under different N sources (NO3 and NH4) and N fertilizer application rates. Nitrate and NH4 fertilizers plus nitrification inhibitor were applied at 56, 112, and 225 kg N ha−1 under field conditions, and in the greenhouse four N rates (1, 5, 10, and 25 mM N) were applied in three NO3: NH4 ratios (100 : 0, 50 : 50, 0 : 100). Growth of giant foxtail was affected by N rates under both greenhouse and field conditions. In 1993, abundant rainfall in May and June allowed a rapid and earlier uptake of N by giant foxtail, resulting in larger plants with greater N accumulation and higher numbers of heads and seeds than in 1994. Total dry weight increased with increasing N rates; however, seed production reached a maximum at approximately 150 kg N ha−1. Nitrogen translocation efficiency decreased with increasing N rates. Giant foxtail did not show any preference to N form; however, seed production was reduced when the high N rate was applied as NH4 compared to NO3. These results suggest that NH4 fertilizer applications with a long-term nitrification inhibitor could reduce the seed production of giant foxtail and its contribution to the soil seedbank for subsequent growing seasons.



Hide All
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1984. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 14th ed. Washington, DC. 24.
Barker, A. V. and Mills, H. A. 1980. Ammonium and nitrate nutrition of horticultural crops. Hortic. Rev. 2: 395423.
Bock, B. R. 1986. Increasing cereal yield with higher ammonium/nitrate ratios: review of potential and limitations. J. Environ. Sci. Health 21: 723758.
Bridges, D. 1994. The ultimate list of worst weeds. Crop Prot. Manage. 7: 4849.
Carlson, H. L. and Hill, J. E. 1985. Wild oat (Avena fatua) competition with spring wheat: effect of nitrogen fertilization. Weed Sci. 34: 2933.
Carlson, R. M. and Keeney, D. R. 1971. Specific ion electrodes: technique and uses in soil, plant and water analysis. in Walsh, L. M., ed. Instrumental Methods for Analysis of Soils and Plant Tissue. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, pp. 3965.
Childs, D. J., Jordan, T. N., Blackwell, R. L., and Geiger, C. R. 1992. Survey of Problem Weeds in Indiana. Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Cooperative Extension Pub. WS-10.
Fawcett, R. S. 1985. Weed control in corn. in King, R., ed. Farmers Weed Control Handbook. St. Louis, MO: Doane, pp. 2141.
Gashaw, L. and Mugwira, L. M. 1981. Ammonium-N and nitrate-N effects on the growth and mineral composition of triticale, wheat and rye. Agron. J. 73: 4751.
Givan, C. V. 1979. Metabolic detoxification of ammonium in tissue of higher plants. Phytochemistry 18: 375382.
Goyal, S. S., Lorez, O. A., and Huffaker, R. C. 1982. Inhibitory effects of ammoniacal nitrogen on growth of radish plants. 1. Characterization of toxic effects of NH4 on growth and its alleviation by NO3 . J. Am. Hortic. Sci. 107: 125129.
Handa, S., Huber, D. M., Warren, H. L., and Tsai, C. Y. 1984. Nitrogen nutrition and N-assimilation in maize seedling. Can. J. Plant Sci. 65: 8793.
Haynes, R. J. and Goh, K. M. 1978. Ammonium and nitrate nutrition of plants. Biol. Rev. 53: 465510.
Lee, R. B. and Drew, M. C. 1989. Rapid reversible inhibition of nitrate influx in barley by ammonium. J. Exp. Bot. 40: 741752.
Lewis, O.A.M., Cramer, M., and Van Der Leij, T. 1990. Influence of nitrogen source on carbon distribution in plants exhibiting the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathway. in Ullrich, W. R., Rigano, C., and Fuggi, A., eds. Inorganic Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants and Microorganisms, Uptake and Metabolism. Berlin: Spring-Verlag, pp. 329335.
Lips, S. H., Leidi, E. O., Siberbush, M., Soares, M.I.M., and Lewis, O.E.M. 1990. Physiological aspects of ammonium and nitrate fertilization. J. Plant Nutr. 13: 12711289.
Macknown, C. T., Jackson, W. A., and Volk, R. J. 1982. Restricted nitrate influx and reduction in corn seedling exposed to ammonium. Plant Physiol. 69: 353359.
Malicki, L. and Berbeciowa, C. 1986. Uptake of more important mineral components by common fields weeds on loess soil. Acta Agrobotamika 39: 129141.
Oliver, L. R. and Schreiber, M. M. 1971. Differential selectivity of herbicides on six Setaria taxa. Weed Sci. 19: 428431.
Qasem, J. R. 1992. Nutrient accumulation by weeds and their associated vegetables crops. J. Hortic. Sci. 67: 189195.
Radin, J. W. 1975. Differential regulation of nitrate reductase induction in roots and shoots of cotton plants. Plant Physiol. 55: 178182.
Reisenauer, H. M. 1978. Absorption and utilization of ammonium nitrogen by plants. in Neilsen, D. R. and MacDonald, J. G., eds. Nitrogen in the Environment. New York: Academic Press, pp. 157170.
Salas, M. L., Hickman, M. V., and Schreiber, M. M. 1994. Influence of nitrogen sources and rates on giant foxtail (Setaria faberi). Weed Sci. Soc. Am. Abstr. 34: 83.
Schreiber, M. M. and Orwick, P. L. 1978. Influence of nitrogen fertilization growth of foxtail (Setaria) taxa. Weed Sci. 26: 547550.
Stromberger, J. A., Tsai, C. Y., and Huber, D. M. 1994. Interactions of potassium with nitrogen and their influence on growth and yield potential in maize. J. Plant Nutr. 17: 1937.
Teyker, R. H., Hoelzer, H. D., and Liebl, R. A. 1991. Maize and pigweed response to nitrogen supply and form. Plant Soil 135: 287292.
Xu, Q. F., Tsai, C. L., and Tsai, C. Y. 1992. Interaction of potassium with the form and amount of nitrogen nutrition on growth and nitrogen uptake of maize. J. Plant Nutr. 15: 2333.
Zadoks, J. C., Chang, T. T., and Konzak, C. F. 1974. A decimal code for the growth stage cereals. Weed Res. 14: 415421.
Zimdahl, R. L. 1993. Fundamentals of Weed Science. New York: Academic Press. 450 p.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed